Next Article in Journal
The Use of Massive Deformation Datasets for the Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Mauna Loa Volcano (Hawai’i)
Next Article in Special Issue
Real-Time Observations of Dust–Cloud Interactions Based on Polarization and Raman Lidar Measurements
Previous Article in Journal
Estimation of Water Level Changes of Large-Scale Amazon Wetlands Using ALOS2 ScanSAR Differential Interferometry
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aerosol and Meteorological Parameters Associated with the Intense Dust Event of 15 April 2015 over Beijing, China
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Investigation of Precipitable Water Vapor Obtained by Raman Lidar and Comprehensive Analyses with Meteorological Parameters in Xi’an

School of Mechanical and Precision Instrument Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060967
Received: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Properties)
  |  
PDF [6854 KB, uploaded 17 June 2018]
  |  

Abstract

To evaluate the potential of Raman lidar observations for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV), PWV variations and distribution characteristics were investigated in Xi’an (34.233°N, 108.911°E), and its comparisons with meteorological parameters were also analysed. Comparisons of lidar PWV with radiosonde PWV verified the ability and accuracy of using Raman lidars for PWV measurements. The diurnal and monthly variation trends in PWV in different layers are first discussed via the statistical analysis of lidar data from November 2013 to July 2016; different proportions of PWV were found in different layers, and the PWV in each layer presented a slight diurnal change trend and consistent seasonal variation, which was relatively rich in summer, less so in spring and autumn, and relatively deficient in winter. Furthermore, correlation analyses between lidar PWV and meteorological parameters are explored. Water vapor pressure and surface temperature revealed the same inter-seasonal oscillation of PWV, with a correlation coefficient of ~0.90. However, incomplete synchronization was found between PWV and relative humidity and precipitation parameters. Higher humidity appeared in the late summer and the beginning of autumn of each year, which was also the case for precipitation and precipitation efficiency. In addition, atmospheric water vapor density profiles and the obtained PWV by Raman lidar are discussed employing a rainfall case, and a comprehensive analysis with meteorological parameters is undertaken. The intensifying characteristics of vertical change in water vapor and the accumulation of PWV in the lower troposphere can be captured by lidar before the onset of rainfall. In contrast to the obvious diurnal change trend, such meteorological parameters as relative humidity, water vapor pressure, and dew-point temperature difference are accompanied with stable trends with a change rate of close to 0 in the rainfall processes; they also show high correlated variations with lidar PWV. Thus, with the advantage of lidar detection, investigation of water vapor profiles and PWV by Raman lidar, and the comprehensive correlation analyses with synchronic meteorological parameters can prove to be good indications of rainfall. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitable water vapor (PWV); Raman lidar; meteorological parameters precipitable water vapor (PWV); Raman lidar; meteorological parameters
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Y.; Tang, L.; Zhang, J.; Gao, T.; Wang, Q.; Song, Y.; Hua, D. Investigation of Precipitable Water Vapor Obtained by Raman Lidar and Comprehensive Analyses with Meteorological Parameters in Xi’an. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 967.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top