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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Underwater Acoustic Pulsed Source Localization with a Pair of Hydrophones

Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Crete, GR 70013 Heraklion, Greece
Technological Education Institute-Crete, Crete, GR 71410 Heraklion, Greece
School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, CA V8W 2Y2, USA
Pelagos Cetacean Research Institute, Terpsichoris 21, 16671 Vouliagmeni, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(6), 883;
Received: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Undersea Remote Sensing)
A series of underwater acoustic localization experiments were conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to test the performance of a Bayesian method for localization of pulsed acoustic sources exploiting time differences between direct and surface-reflected arrivals at two hydrophones of known depth. The experiments involved a controlled source (pinger) at various depths/ranges as well as vocalizing sperm whales encountered off southern Crete. The localization method provides primarily range and depth information. In addition, if the location of the hydrophones in the horizontal is known, horizontal localization can be performed as well, subject to left–right ambiguity; this was applied for whale localization. The localization results confirmed the anticipated behavior of range, depth, and bearing estimation errors, which, according to theory, depend mainly on the source azimuth. In particular, range and depth estimation errors are larger for source locations close to broadside to the array and smaller towards endfire, and they increase with range. Conversely, bearing estimation errors are larger close to endfire and smaller towards broadside. Localizations in this paper were performed to ranges of about 3.5 km. The limiting factors for localization to longer ranges were the loss of ability to resolve direct and surface-reflected arrivals as well as the self-noise of the hydrophones. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater acoustic localization; passive localization; pulsed source localization; Bayesian inversion; ray theory underwater acoustic localization; passive localization; pulsed source localization; Bayesian inversion; ray theory
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Skarsoulis, E.K.; Piperakis, G.; Kalogerakis, M.; Orfanakis, E.; Papadakis, P.; Dosso, S.E.; Frantzis, A. Underwater Acoustic Pulsed Source Localization with a Pair of Hydrophones. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 883.

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