Next Article in Journal
Can UAV-Based Infrared Thermography Be Used to Study Plant-Parasite Interactions between Mistletoe and Eucalypt Trees?
Next Article in Special Issue
Challenges and Best Practices for Deriving Temperature Data from an Uncalibrated UAV Thermal Infrared Camera
Previous Article in Journal
Comparative Analysis of Polarimetric SAR Calibration Methods
Previous Article in Special Issue
Potential of Photochemical Reflectance Index for Indicating Photochemistry and Light Use Efficiency in Leaves of European Beech and Norway Spruce Trees
Open AccessArticle

Improving the Performance of 3-D Radiative Transfer Model FLIGHT to Simulate Optical Properties of a Tree-Grass Ecosystem

Laboratorio de Espectro-Radiometría y Teledetección Ambiental (SpecLab), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid, Spain
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hanks Knöll Straße 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany
Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ctra. Coruña, Km 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
INDEHESA-Forest Research Group, Universidad de Extremadura, 10600 Plasencia, Spain
Departamento de Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna, 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Departamento de Geología, Geografía y Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alcalá, Colegios 2, 28801 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Department of Geography, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
Center for Spatial Technologies and Remote Sensing (CSTARS), University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, 139 Veihmeyer Hall, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(12), 2061;
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 15 December 2018 / Published: 18 December 2018
The 3-D Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) FLIGHT can represent scattering in open forest or savannas featuring underlying bare soils. However, FLIGHT might not be suitable for multilayered tree-grass ecosystems (TGE), where a grass understory can dominate the reflectance factor (RF) dynamics due to strong seasonal variability and low tree fractional cover. To address this issue, we coupled FLIGHT with the 1-D RTM PROSAIL. The model is evaluated against spectral observations of proximal and remote sensing sensors: the ASD Fieldspec® 3 spectroradiometer, the Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) and the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) onboard Sentinel-2. We tested the capability of both PROSAIL and PROSAIL+FLIGHT to reproduce the variability of different phenological stages determined by 16-year time series analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MODIS-NDVI). Then, we combined concomitant observations of biophysical variables and RF to test the capability of the models to reproduce observed RF. PROSAIL achieved a Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE) between 6% to 32% at proximal sensing scale. PROSAIL+FLIGHT RRMSE ranged between 7% to 31% at remote sensing scales. RRMSE increased in periods when large fractions of standing dead material mixed with emergent green grasses —especially in autumn—; suggesting that the model cannot represent the spectral features of this material. PROSAIL+FLIGHT improves RF simulation especially in summer and at mid-high view angles. View Full-Text
Keywords: FLIGHT; PROSAIL; tree-grass ecosystem; model coupling; phenology FLIGHT; PROSAIL; tree-grass ecosystem; model coupling; phenology
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Melendo-Vega, J.R.; Martín, M.P.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; González-Cascón, R.; Moreno, G.; Pérez, F.; Migliavacca, M.; García, M.; North, P.; Riaño, D. Improving the Performance of 3-D Radiative Transfer Model FLIGHT to Simulate Optical Properties of a Tree-Grass Ecosystem. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 2061.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop