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Correction published on 18 April 2019, see Remote Sens. 2019, 11(8), 941.

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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(12), 2038; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10122038

Satellite and In Situ Observations for Advancing Global Earth Surface Modelling: A Review

1
European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Reading RG2 9AX, UK
2
Météo-France, Centre National de Recherches Météorologique, 31000 Toulouse, France
3
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, Institut Pierre-Simon-Laplace, Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, LSCE/IPSL/CEA, 91190 Gif sur Yvette, France
4
Meteorology Depart., University of Reading, Reading RG6 7BE, UK
5
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA 98115, USA
6
Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
7
European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
8
Instituto Dom Luiz, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
9
National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
10
Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
11
UK MetOffice, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK
12
Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, CESBIO, 31401 Toulouse, France
13
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
14
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, 07745 Jena, Germany
15
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Monterey, CA 93943, USA
16
Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
17
Instituto Português do Mar e da Amosfera (IPMA), 1749-077 Lisbon, Portugal
18
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
19
Dept. Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Shinfield Park, Reading RG2 9AX, UK.
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract

In this paper, we review the use of satellite-based remote sensing in combination with in situ data to inform Earth surface modelling. This involves verification and optimization methods that can handle both random and systematic errors and result in effective model improvement for both surface monitoring and prediction applications. The reasons for diverse remote sensing data and products include (i) their complementary areal and temporal coverage, (ii) their diverse and covariant information content, and (iii) their ability to complement in situ observations, which are often sparse and only locally representative. To improve our understanding of the complex behavior of the Earth system at the surface and sub-surface, we need large volumes of data from high-resolution modelling and remote sensing, since the Earth surface exhibits a high degree of heterogeneity and discontinuities in space and time. The spatial and temporal variability of the biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and anthroposphere calls for an increased use of Earth observation (EO) data attaining volumes previously considered prohibitive. We review data availability and discuss recent examples where satellite remote sensing is used to infer observable surface quantities directly or indirectly, with particular emphasis on key parameters necessary for weather and climate prediction. Coordinated high-resolution remote-sensing and modelling/assimilation capabilities for the Earth surface are required to support an international application-focused effort. View Full-Text
Keywords: earth-observations; earth system modelling; direct and inverse methods earth-observations; earth system modelling; direct and inverse methods
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Balsamo, G.; Agustì-Parareda, A.; Albergel, C.; Arduini, G.; Beljaars, A.; Bidlot, J.; Bousserez, N.; Boussetta, S.; Brown, A.; Buizza, R.; Buontempo, C.; Chevallier, F.; Choulga, M.; Cloke, H.; Cronin, M.F.; Dahoui, M.; De Rosnay, P.; Dirmeyer, P.A.; Drusch, M.; Dutra, E.; Ek, M.B.; Gentine, P.; Hewitt, H.; Keeley, S.P.E.; Kerr, Y.; Kumar, S.; Lupu, C.; Mahfouf, J.-F.; McNorton, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Mogensen, K.; Muñoz-Sabater, J.; Orth, R.; Rabier, F.; Reichle, R.; Ruston, B.; Pappenberger, F.; Sandu, I.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Tietsche, S.; Trigo, I.F.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Wedi, N.; Woolway, R.I.; Zeng, X. Satellite and In Situ Observations for Advancing Global Earth Surface Modelling: A Review. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 2038.

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