Next Article in Journal
The Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Map Intertidal Sediment
Previous Article in Journal
Sea Surface Temperature Retrieval from the First Korean Geostationary Satellite COMS Data: Validation and Error Assessment
Open AccessArticle

Residuals of Tropospheric Delays from GNSS Data and Ray-Tracing as a Potential Indicator of Rain and Clouds

1
Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Grunwaldzka 53, 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
2
Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, University of Wrocław, Kosiby 8, 51-621 Wrocław, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(12), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121917
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 27 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is commonly recognized by its all-weather capability. However, observations depend on atmospheric conditions which requires the induced tropospheric delay to be estimated as an unknown parameter. In the following study, we investigate the impact of intense weather events on GNSS estimates. GNSS slant total delays (STD) in Precise Point Positioning technique (PPP) strategy were calculated for stations in southwest Poland in a 56 days period covering several heavy precipitation cases. The corresponding delays retrieved from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by a ray-tracing technique considered only gaseous parts of the atmosphere. The discrepancies are correlated with rain rates and cloud type products from remote sensing platforms. Positive correlation is found as well as GNSS estimates tend to be systematically larger than modeled delays. Mean differences mapped to the zenith direction are showed to vary between 10 mm and 30 mm. The magnitude of discrepancies follows the intensity of phenomena, especially for severe weather events. Results suggest that effects induced by commonly neglected liquid and solid water terms in the troposphere modeling should be considered in precise GNSS applications for the atmosphere monitoring. The state-of-art functional model applied in GNSS processing strategies shows certain deficits. Estimated tropospheric delays with gradients and post-fit residuals could be replaced by a loosely constrained solution without loss of quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; hydrometeors; NWP; PPP; troposphere; ray-tracing GNSS; hydrometeors; NWP; PPP; troposphere; ray-tracing
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Hordyniec, P.; Kapłon, J.; Rohm, W.; Kryza, M. Residuals of Tropospheric Delays from GNSS Data and Ray-Tracing as a Potential Indicator of Rain and Clouds. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1917. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121917

AMA Style

Hordyniec P, Kapłon J, Rohm W, Kryza M. Residuals of Tropospheric Delays from GNSS Data and Ray-Tracing as a Potential Indicator of Rain and Clouds. Remote Sensing. 2018; 10(12):1917. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121917

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hordyniec, Paweł; Kapłon, Jan; Rohm, Witold; Kryza, Maciej. 2018. "Residuals of Tropospheric Delays from GNSS Data and Ray-Tracing as a Potential Indicator of Rain and Clouds" Remote Sens. 10, no. 12: 1917. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10121917

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop