Next Article in Journal
Combining Camera Relascope-Measured Field Plots and Multi-Seasonal Landsat 8 Imagery for Enhancing the Forest Inventory of Boreal Forests in Central Russia
Next Article in Special Issue
The GEWEX Water Vapor Assessment: Overview and Introduction to Results and Recommendations
Previous Article in Journal
Tree Species Classification with Multi-Temporal Sentinel-2 Data
Previous Article in Special Issue
Best Practices in Crafting the Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Passive-Microwave EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record
Article

Long-Term Arctic Snow/Ice Interface Temperature from Special Sensor for Microwave Imager Measurements

1
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111795
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Essential Climate Variables and Their Applications)
The Arctic sea ice region is the most visible area experiencing global warming-induced climate change. However, long-term measurements of climate-related variables have been limited to a small number of variables such as the sea ice concentration, extent, and area. In this study, we attempt to produce a long-term temperature record for the Arctic sea ice region using Special Sensor for Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Fundamental Climate Data Record (FCDR) data. For that, we developed an algorithm to retrieve the wintertime snow/ice interface temperature (SIIT) over the Arctic Ocean by counting the effect of the snow/ice volume scattering and ice surface roughness on the apparent emissivity (the total effect is referred to as the correction factor). A regression equation was devised to predict the correction factor from SSM/I brightness temperatures (TBs) only and then applied to SSM/I 19.4 GHz TB to estimate the SIIT. The obtained temperatures were validated against collocated Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) ice mass balance (IMB) drifting buoy-measured temperatures at zero ice depth. It is shown that the SSM/I retrievals are in good agreement with the drifting buoy measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95, bias of 0.1 K, and root-mean-square error of 1.48 K on a daily time scale. By applying the algorithm to 24-year (1988–2011) SSM/I FCDR data, we were able to produce the winter-time temperature at the sea ice surface for the 24-year period. View Full-Text
Keywords: snow/ice interface temperature; SSM/I; microwave measurement; fundamental climate data record; apparent emissivity; Arctic sea ice snow/ice interface temperature; SSM/I; microwave measurement; fundamental climate data record; apparent emissivity; Arctic sea ice
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.-M.; Sohn, B.-J.; Kummerow, C.D. Long-Term Arctic Snow/Ice Interface Temperature from Special Sensor for Microwave Imager Measurements. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1795. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111795

AMA Style

Lee S-M, Sohn B-J, Kummerow CD. Long-Term Arctic Snow/Ice Interface Temperature from Special Sensor for Microwave Imager Measurements. Remote Sensing. 2018; 10(11):1795. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111795

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Sang-Moo, Byung-Ju Sohn, and Christian D. Kummerow 2018. "Long-Term Arctic Snow/Ice Interface Temperature from Special Sensor for Microwave Imager Measurements" Remote Sensing 10, no. 11: 1795. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10111795

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop