Next Article in Journal
Evaluating RADARSAT-2 for the Monitoring of Lake Ice Phenology Events in Mid-Latitudes
Next Article in Special Issue
Best Practices in Crafting the Calibrated, Enhanced-Resolution Passive-Microwave EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature Earth System Data Record
Previous Article in Journal
Hyperspectral Classification via Superpixel Kernel Learning-Based Low Rank Representation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inter-Comparison and Evaluation of the Four Longest Satellite-Derived Cloud Climate Data Records: CLARA-A2, ESA Cloud CCI V3, ISCCP-HGM, and PATMOS-x
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(10), 1640;

The AMSU-Based Hydrological Bundle Climate Data Record—Description and Comparison with Other Data Sets

NOAA/NESDIS/Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR), 5825 University Research Court, Suite 4001, College Park, MD 20740, USA
NOAA/NESDIS/National Center for Environmental Information (NCEI), 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC 28801, USA
Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites, North Carolina State University, 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC 28801, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Essential Climate Variables and Their Applications)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4678 KB, uploaded 16 October 2018]   |  


Passive microwave measurements have been available on satellites back to the 1970s, first flown on research satellites developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Since then, several other sensors have been flown to retrieve hydrological products for both operational weather applications (e.g., the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager—SSM/I; the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit—AMSU) and climate applications (e.g., the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—AMSR; the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager—TMI; the Global Precipitation Mission Microwave Imager—GMI). Here, the focus is on measurements from the AMSU-A, AMSU-B, and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). These sensors have been in operation since 1998, with the launch of NOAA-15, and are also on board NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19, and the MetOp-A and -B satellites. A data set called the “Hydrological Bundle” is a climate data record (CDR) that utilizes brightness temperatures from fundamental CDRs (FCDRs) to generate thematic CDRs (TCDRs). The TCDRs include total precipitable water (TPW), cloud liquid water (CLW), sea-ice concentration (SIC), land surface temperature (LST), land surface emissivity (LSE) for 23, 31, 50 GHz, rain rate (RR), snow cover (SC), ice water path (IWP), and snow water equivalent (SWE). The TCDRs are shown to be in general good agreement with similar products from other sources, such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2). Due to the careful intercalibration of the FCDRs, little bias is found among the different TCDRs produced from individual NOAA and MetOp satellites, except for normal diurnal cycle differences. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; climate data record; passive microwave; hydrology remote sensing; climate data record; passive microwave; hydrology

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ferraro, R.R.; Nelson, B.R.; Smith, T.; Prat, O.P. The AMSU-Based Hydrological Bundle Climate Data Record—Description and Comparison with Other Data Sets. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1640.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top