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Open AccessArticle

Geospatial Analysis of Horizontal and Vertical Urban Expansion Using Multi-Spatial Resolution Data: A Case Study of Surabaya, Indonesia

1
Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8572, Ibaraki, Japan
2
Geomatics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Campus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, East Java, Indonesia
3
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8572, Ibaraki, Japan
4
Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale 50300, Sri Lanka
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(10), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10101599
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Urban Ecology and Sustainability)
Urbanization addresses urban expansion, and it leads conversion of the green space into the built-up area. However, previous studies mainly focused on two-dimensional (2D) urban expansion rather than three-dimensional (3D) growth. Here, the purpose of this study is to examine the urban expansion, including built-up and green space for both horizontal and vertical dimensions using geospatial analysis including remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) in the sub-Central Business District (CBD) area of Surabaya, Indonesia. The medium resolution remote sensing data for both image and Digital Surface Model (DSM) acquired by Advanced Land-Observing Satellite (ALOS) were applied for time-1 (2010). The orthophoto and DSM derived by LiDAR were used for time-2 (2016). We quantified the built-up and green expansions in 2D (area), which were extracted from land use/land cover (LU/LC) by applying hybrid classification. The built-up and green expansions in 3D (volume) were estimated by generating a surface feature model. The spatial configuration of area expansion was investigated using patch metric, while the volume growth was examined using the volume expansion rate. We got three findings. (1) The built-up and green area had expanded about 11.54% and 95.61%, respectively, from 2010 to 2016. The expansion of green area presented in a notable portion, which was mainly contributed by the conversion of bareland to playground or park. However, the expansion of built-up area was less than the volume expansion of 20.6%. It revealed that built-up growth led to vertical rather than horizontal development. (2) The built-up area expansion tended to scatter configuration, whereas, the green area expansion tended to aggregate in a linear pattern. (3) The ratio of built-up volume expansion to green volume expansion showed a mean of 3.7, indicating that the development of built-up and green volume was imbalanced. The built-up growth presented higher than the green growth, mainly in the areas with more vertical building establishment. The pressing need for higher green volume in the study area was identified in several sites located at surrounding artery and toll roads. Overall, our approach can be applied as a reference in monitoring neighborhood environment through greening programs for sustainable urban development. View Full-Text
Keywords: horizontal and vertical expansions; geospatial; multi-spatial resolution; Surabaya; built-up; green; sustainable horizontal and vertical expansions; geospatial; multi-spatial resolution; Surabaya; built-up; green; sustainable
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MDPI and ACS Style

Handayani, H.H.; Murayama, Y.; Ranagalage, M.; Liu, F.; Dissanayake, D. Geospatial Analysis of Horizontal and Vertical Urban Expansion Using Multi-Spatial Resolution Data: A Case Study of Surabaya, Indonesia. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1599.

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