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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(10), 1594; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10101594

Implications of Whole-Disc DSCOVR EPIC Spectral Observations for Estimating Earth’s Spectral Reflectivity Based on Low-Earth-Orbiting and Geostationary Observations

1
Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
2
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Beijing Normal University and Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100875, China
3
Beijing Engineering Research Center for Global Land Remote Sensing Products, Institute of Remote Sensing Science and Engineering, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
4
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
5
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 02044 Espoo, Finland
6
College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
7
Macro Agriculture Research Institute, College of Resource and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
8
Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiative Transfer Modelling and Applications in Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

Earth’s reflectivity is among the key parameters of climate research. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) spacecraft provides spectral reflectance of the entire sunlit Earth in the near backscattering direction every 65 to 110 min. Unlike EPIC, sensors onboard the Earth Orbiting Satellites (EOS) sample reflectance over swaths at a specific local solar time (LST) or over a fixed area. Such intrinsic sampling limits result in an apparent Earth’s reflectivity. We generated spectral reflectance over sampling areas using EPIC data. The difference between the EPIC and EOS estimates is an uncertainty in Earth’s reflectivity. We developed an Earth Reflector Type Index (ERTI) to discriminate between major Earth atmosphere components: clouds, cloud-free ocean, bare and vegetated land. Temporal variations in Earth’s reflectivity are mostly determined by clouds. The sampling area of EOS sensors may not be sufficient to represent cloud variability, resulting in biased estimates. Taking EPIC reflectivity as a reference, low-earth-orbiting-measurements at the sensor-specific LST tend to overestimate EPIC values by 0.8% to 8%. Biases in geostationary orbiting approximations due to a limited sampling area are between 0.7 % and 12%. Analyses of ERTI-based Earth component reflectivity indicate that the disagreement between EPIC and EOS estimates depends on the sampling area, observation time and vary between 10 % and 23%. View Full-Text
Keywords: Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR); Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC); spectral reflectance; MISR; MODIS; GOES-East Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR); Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC); spectral reflectance; MISR; MODIS; GOES-East
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Song, W.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Wen, G.; Marshak, A.; Mõttus, M.; Yan, K.; Yang, B.; Xu, B.; Park, T.; Chen, C.; Zeng, Y.; Yan, G.; Mu, X.; Myneni, R.B. Implications of Whole-Disc DSCOVR EPIC Spectral Observations for Estimating Earth’s Spectral Reflectivity Based on Low-Earth-Orbiting and Geostationary Observations. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1594.

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