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Solar Radiation Pressure Models for BeiDou-3 I2-S Satellite: Comparison and Augmentation

1, 1,2, 1,3,* and 1,3
GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
Collaborative Innovation Center of Geospatial Technology, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(1), 118;
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
PDF [2424 KB, uploaded 17 January 2018]


As one of the most essential modeling aspects for precise orbit determination, solar radiation pressure (SRP) is the largest non-gravitational force acting on a navigation satellite. This study focuses on SRP modeling of the BeiDou-3 experimental satellite I2-S (PRN C32), for which an obvious modeling deficiency that is related to SRP was formerly identified. The satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation demonstrated that the orbit of BeiDou-3 I2-S determined with empirical 5-parameter Extended CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) Orbit Model (ECOM1) has the sun elongation angle (ε angle) dependent systematic error, as well as a bias of approximately −16.9 cm. Similar performance has been identified for European Galileo and Japanese QZSS Michibiki satellite as well, and can be reduced with the extended ECOM model (ECOM2), or by using the a priori SRP model to augment ECOM1. In this study, the performances of the widely used SRP models for GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) satellites, i.e., ECOM1, ECOM2, and adjustable box-wing model have been compared and analyzed for BeiDou-3 I2-S satellite. In addition, the a priori SRP models are derived based on analytical cuboid box model and empirically spectra analysis, respectively. Use of the a priori model combined with ECOM1 was finally demonstrated to reduce the ε-angle-dependent systematic error, and thus improved the radial orbit accuracy by nearly 35 per cent when compared to the solution with standalone ECOM1, as revealed by the one way SLR residuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: BeiDou-3 I2-S; precise orbit determination; solar radiation pressure; box-wing BeiDou-3 I2-S; precise orbit determination; solar radiation pressure; box-wing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, C.; Guo, J.; Zhao, Q.; Liu, J. Solar Radiation Pressure Models for BeiDou-3 I2-S Satellite: Comparison and Augmentation. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 118.

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