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Article

Influence of Income Level and Seasons on Quantity and Composition of Municipal Solid Waste: A Case Study of the Capital City of Pakistan

1
College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2
Department of Space Science, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Lecturer College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091568
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste, Space, and Place)
The current study aims to analyze and compare the quantity and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) at three socio-economic levels of population during all four seasons of the year (spring, summer, monsoon and winter). In this study, 2164.75 kg of MSW was evaluated, from 1260 samples collected from 45 households. The average waste generation was estimated to be 0.6 kg per capita per day. Waste generation rate for high, middle and low income groups was 0.890, 0.612 and 0.346 kg per capita per day, respectively. Nevertheless, season specific analysis indicated waste generation rates of 0.78, 0.58, 0.48 and 0.75 kg per capita per day in spring, summer, monsoon and winter, respectively. A two way ANOVA statistical analysis further illustrated a significant effect (p = 0.00) of economic level and seasons on the amount and composition of waste generated by the community. Moreover, the collected waste was segregated into 42 categories, where the highest was the organic fraction (57%), then diapers (12%), followed by plastic (8%), cardboard (3%) and paper (2%). The amounts of textile, diapers and plastics were highest in the lowest income group, while tetra packs, metal, paper and yard waste were maximum in the high income group. It is concluded that the high income group generated the highest amount of waste and waste generation rate is higher in the seasons of spring and winter compared to the other two seasons. View Full-Text
Keywords: integrated waste management; income groups; seasonal influence; generation rate; Islamabad integrated waste management; income groups; seasonal influence; generation rate; Islamabad
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zia, A.; Batool, S.A.; Chauhdry, M.N.; Munir, S. Influence of Income Level and Seasons on Quantity and Composition of Municipal Solid Waste: A Case Study of the Capital City of Pakistan. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091568

AMA Style

Zia A, Batool SA, Chauhdry MN, Munir S. Influence of Income Level and Seasons on Quantity and Composition of Municipal Solid Waste: A Case Study of the Capital City of Pakistan. Sustainability. 2017; 9(9):1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091568

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zia, Amina, Syeda A. Batool, Muhammad N. Chauhdry, and Soniya Munir. 2017. "Influence of Income Level and Seasons on Quantity and Composition of Municipal Solid Waste: A Case Study of the Capital City of Pakistan" Sustainability 9, no. 9: 1568. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091568

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