Next Article in Journal
A Lagrangian Relaxation-Based Solution Method for a Green Vehicle Routing Problem to Minimize Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Previous Article in Journal
Climate Variability and Industrial-Suburban Heat Environment in a Mediterranean Area
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 769;

Performing Ecosystem Services at Mud Flats in Seocheon, Korea: Using Q Methodology for Cooperative Decision Making

Bureau of Ecological Research, National Institute of Ecology, Seocheon, Choongnam 33657, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Torretta
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 8 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
Full-Text   |   PDF [496 KB, uploaded 10 May 2017]   |  


The concept of ecosystem services, which are the direct and indirect benefits of nature to humans, has been established as a supporting tool to increase the efficiency in decision-making regarding environmental planning. However, preceding studies on decision-making in relation to ecosystem services have been limited to identifying differences in perception, whereas few studies have reported cooperative alternatives. Therefore, this study aimed to present a method for cooperative decision-making among ecosystem service stakeholders using Q methodology. The results showed three perspectives on ecosystem services of small mud flat areas: ecological function, ecotourism, and human activity. The perspectives on cultural services and regulating services were diverse, whereas those on supporting services were similar. Thus, supporting services were considered crucial for the cooperative assessment and management of small mud flat ecosystems as well as for the scientific evaluation of regulating services. Furthermore, this study identified practical implementation measures to increase production through land management, to manufacture related souvenirs, and to link them to ecotourism. Overall, our results demonstrated the ideal process of cooperative decision-making to improve ecosystem services. View Full-Text
Keywords: policymaker; collaborative planning; stakeholder; action plan policymaker; collaborative planning; stakeholder; action plan

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.-H.; Kim, M.; Kim, B.; Park, H.-J.; Kwon, H.-S. Performing Ecosystem Services at Mud Flats in Seocheon, Korea: Using Q Methodology for Cooperative Decision Making. Sustainability 2017, 9, 769.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top