- freely available
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2201; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122201
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Design of Energy Policy for Risk Reduction in Managing the Regional Electric Power Industry
3.2. Uncertainty and Risk in Integrated Resource Planning
- ensuring uninterrupted electricity production,
- ensuring constant access to the resource for all business actors, and
- rational accounting of the impact of power supply on the region’s development.
- Procedural decisions are the ones that exclude the human factor as a prerequisite for the occurrence of a hazard or as a result of unintended consequences in the technological process. These include checklists, flow charts, flow diagrams, and process flow charts that codify the sequence of action.
- Construction solutions are physical safeguards for reducing the likelihood of a hazard or mitigating its aftermath.
- Program solutions are safeguards that are created thanks to automation of production processes and the use of information technology for accuracy and precision of decision making .
3.3. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Effectiveness of Investment Projects in the Electric Power Sector
- An integral approach to accounting for positive effects and negative consequences of investment project implementation.
- The economic and environmental components of costs and benefits should be treated equally. This makes it possible to convert the environmental component into an economic category.
- A differentiated approach to accounting for the time factor in the economic and environmental components of benefits and costs.
3.4. Promising Model of the Electric Power Sector in a Large Region
- Cluster one: large power plants that are merged into an electric power system (serving large energy intensive consumers with an even load schedule) for discretionary loads—for example in the machine building industry—demand-side management on the part of major energy companies;
- Cluster two: distributed generation installations with uneven load schedules are ‘assigned’ to electricity-non-intensive consumers, for example in the utilities sector or agriculture.
- Guidelines standardizing the characteristics of new and renovated combined heat and power plants (CHP);
- Tax incentives to encourage investment in energy installations that meet the accepted standards and priorities of the technological policy;
- Use of accelerated depreciation for taxation purposes at new advanced installations; guarantees of sales and acceptable return on capital to owners of “green” RES installations and micro-CHP plants;
- Encouraging energy efficiency and reduction of operating costs by setting target volumes of necessary gross revenue (NGR) and by using the method of NGR distribution that takes into account the impact of combined-cycle production on electricity and heat prices;
- Stimulation of cooperation between regional energy companies and consumers of electricity and heat as part of demand side management programs, for example, by sharing savings from energy efficiency measures. It is also advisable to have targeted tax incentives in place that energy companies would be entitled to if they invest in rationalizing the energy infrastructure of consumers.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type of Factor||Form of Crisis|
|Endogenic||Excessive wear of assets||Replenishing|
|Lack of coordination in energy system development||Disintegrating|
|Irrational structure of energy consumption||Structural|
|Structural shifts in national economy; decline in production||Financial, investment|
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