Assessing Coherence between Sector Policies and Climate Compatible Development: Opportunities for Triple Wins
- To what extent are Ghana’s agriculture, energy, water, forest and wildlife sector policies aligned with climate adaptation, mitigation and development?
- What is the extent of policy coherence amongst the climate-sensitive sector policies of Ghana’s economy?
- Where are the key intervention points available to enhance CCD activities?
2. Climate Change, Agriculture, Water Resources, Energy and Forest Resources in Ghana
3. Research Methods
3.1. Qualitative Document Analysis
3.2. Expert Interviews and Stakeholder Workshop
4.1. Aligning Climate-Sensitive Sector Policies with Adaptation, Mitigation and Development
4.2. Policy Coherence among Climate-Sensitive Sector Policies
The FASDEP II focus was on policy strategies in achieving agricultural modernization and sustainable utilization of resources in the sector; hence it is limited to very few inter-sectoral linkages [with other sectors].(Expert interview, Accra, April 2017)
Institutions’ responsibility for agriculture and energy, for example, are mentioned in the policy document including their specific activities in relation to water. However, it is not clear what roles these institutions have been assigned in the policy to ensure the achievements of the objectives and policy actions. What should actors in the agriculture sector, for example, do to advance the aims of the policy? This is not available in the document.(Expert interview on National Water Policy, Accra, April 2017)
6. Conclusions and Implications for Climate Change Policy
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type of Alignment||Description of Alignment||Score|
|High alignment||The sector policy aligns strongly with the indicators of triple wins (adaptation, mitigation and development (A/M/D)). Policy devotes attention to the particular building block and includes specific activities for achieving the particular block.||3|
|Partial alignment||Although the policy supports the various indicators of A/M/D, it is less clear and distinct in terms of how the indicators and each particular building block could be achieved. There is limited evidence present of how the specific indicators as well as the building blocks could be achieved in practice.||2|
|Limited alignment||The sector policy supports a particular indicator of the A/M/D building block but there is a lack of evidence to support alignment with it.||1|
|No alignment||There is no evidence in the document to suggest that the sector policy supports the implementation of the building block or even encourages it.||0|
|Type of Coherence||Description of Coherence||Score|
|High coherence||The policy aligns strongly with other sectors. Policy devotes specific attention to alignments within these sectors and in relation to climate change adaptation. It includes numerous and detailed complementary activities (including projects) for achieving that.||3|
|Partial coherence||The specific policy supports other sectors, although it is less clear and distinct as to how it could be achieved. Relatively fewer details and activities are included within the policy.||2|
|Limited coherence||The specific policy supports other sectors. Lack of relative details in terms of activities and plans.||1|
|No coherence||There is no evidence in the policy to suggest alignment with other sectors.||0|
|Sector Policies||Building Blocks of Climate Compatible Development|
|Food and agriculture policy||(2) FASDEP II mentions specific strategies for the attainment of food security including developing appropriate irrigation schemes for different categories of farmers to ensure production throughout the year, as well as the introduction of high-yielding and short-duration crop varieties.||(0) The various indicators of mitigation that were assessed in the analysis were not given adequate consideration in the FASDEP II.||(3) The policy sets out to improve food security to enhance rural livelihoods that will promote development.||(1.33) limited alignment|
|Water policy||(2) Specific activities to address climate change are highlighted including: “(i) construction of flood protection structures at appropriate locations; (ii) apply appropriate technologies to provide the necessary information for early warning systems for floods and drought; and (iii) ensure rain water harvesting techniques are incorporated into the building code and enforced” .||(0) Although the water policy recognises climate change, it does not provide specific actions to encourage mitigation efforts.||(2) Recognises that water is at the heart of Ghana’s effort to reduce poverty and improve economic development. It promotes sustainable development.||(1.33) limited alignment|
|Forest and wildlife policy||(1) The policy acknowledges climate change and seeks to develop climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. However, it is short of details on how these can be achieved.||(3) Recognises the threat posed by climate change to forest and wildlife resources and proposes specific activities to address this including: "(i) establishment of a savannah eco-restoration fund to be accessed for tree planting along ecologically sensitive area; (ii) enactment of legislations to guide allocation of carbon rights; (iii) promote sustainable management of savannah woodland; (iv) increase biodiversity conservation” .||(2) Provides specific actions aimed at development including “(i) consolidate good governance through accountability and transparency; (ii) enhance active participation of communities and landowners in resource management; (iii) promote small and medium forest and wildlife enterprises as a means of job creation for the rural and urban poor” .||(2.00) partial alignment|
|Energy policy||(0) There is lack of evidence on how the policy would promote climate change adaptation.||(2) The energy policy seeks to deliver mitigation by reducing carbon emissions. It also mentions waste-to-energy resources that seek to divert waste from landfill into energy resources, further reducing emission of GHGs including methane and carbon dioxide. The energy policy seeks to “support sustained regeneration of woody biomass resources through legislation, fiscal incentives, and attractive pricing” .||(2) With regards to development, the energy sector policy promotes the mainstreaming of gender issues aimed at reducing the dependency of women on biomass (including firewood and charcoal). The policy also promotes economic development.||(1.25) limited alignment|
|Overall alignment||(1.25) limited alignment||(1.25) limited alignment||(2.25) partial alignment|
|Policy/Strategy||Energy Policy||Water Policy||Forest/Wildlife Policy||Agriculture Policy|
|National Climate Change Policy||Nationally Determined Contributions|
|Agriculture||(0) No specific statements to suggest sectoral alignment with the water policy.||(3) Highlights the significance of water for food security. Specific details are provided.||(1) Recognizes interactions with agriculture but provides no details.||N/A||(3) Highlights the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change and details specific actions including (i) the development of climate resilient agricultural systems; and (ii) building climate resilient infrastructure.||(3) Recognizes the vulnerability of the agricultural sector and highlights specific activities and projects to address this vulnerability.|
|Energy||N/A||(0) No specific statements to suggest sectoral alignment with the water policy.||(0) No statements to suggest sectoral statements are coordinated and/or aligned.||(0) No statements to suggest sectoral statements are coordinated and/or aligned.||(1) Recognizes the vulnerability of the energy sector to climate change and provides specific activities. However, lacks specific details on how the sector will respond to climate change.||(2) Highlights energy as vulnerable to climate change. Details some specific actions to reduce the vulnerability of the energy sector.|
|Forest and wildlife||(0) No specific statements to suggest sectoral alignment with the forest.||(1) Enacting legislation to support the implementation of national wetland conservation strategy.||N/A||(1) General statements on sustainable natural resource management with no specific details.||(2) Create national awareness about the role of forests in climate change (mitigation and adaptation). Supports training and education in forest resource management at district levels in carbon rights allocations.||(3) Identifies the vulnerability of Ghana’s forests to climate change and elaborates several activities and projects to reduce such vulnerability.|
|Water||(2) Recognizes the role of sustainable water resource management in meeting current and future energy needs and provides some examples including tree planting.||N/A||(1) Adopts sustainable practices that avoid damage to critical natural capital and irreversible ecological processes||(2) Highlights the role of water for food security and provides specific details such as water use efficiency techniques in agriculture and reduce transmission losses of irrigation systems.||(1) Highlights the importance of improving the management of aquatic ecosystems in order to provide ecosystem services and other related livelihoods for local communities. However, there is lack of detail on how to achieve this.||(2) Recognizes the vulnerability of the water sector. Provides specific activities and projects to achieve this.|
|Climate Change||(2) Improves construction of hydropower schemes, irrigation systems and water supply infrastructure to improve efficiency.||(2) Recognizes climate change as a major issue and provides specific details and actions in addressing these challenges.||(3) Supports initiatives for the enhancement of carbon sinks through afforestation, reforestation measures and rehabilitating degraded natural ecosystems.||(2) Recognizes the vulnerability of the sector to climate change and details specific activities to improve and harmonize research activities in climate smart agriculture.||N/A||(3) Climate change is recognized as a cross-cutting issue for Ghana’s development. All the other sectoral projects outlined in the NDCs are aimed at addressing climate change.|
|Content analysis average||1.00 (limited coherence)||1.50 (partial coherence)||1.25 (limited coherence)||1.25 (limited coherence)||2.00 (partial coherence)||2.60 (full coherence)|
|Stakeholder scoring (average)||2.00 (partial coherence)||1.67 (partial coherence)||1.86 (partial coherence)||1.40 (limited coherence)||3.00 (full coherence)||N/A|
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Antwi-Agyei, P.; Dougill, A.J.; Stringer, L.C. Assessing Coherence between Sector Policies and Climate Compatible Development: Opportunities for Triple Wins. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2130. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112130
Antwi-Agyei P, Dougill AJ, Stringer LC. Assessing Coherence between Sector Policies and Climate Compatible Development: Opportunities for Triple Wins. Sustainability. 2017; 9(11):2130. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112130Chicago/Turabian Style
Antwi-Agyei, Philip, Andrew J. Dougill, and Lindsay C. Stringer. 2017. "Assessing Coherence between Sector Policies and Climate Compatible Development: Opportunities for Triple Wins" Sustainability 9, no. 11: 2130. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112130