Next Article in Journal
Gen2 RFID-Based System Framework for Resource Circulation in Closed-Loop Supply Chains
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effects of Asymmetric Diurnal Warming on Vegetation Growth of the Tibetan Plateau over the Past Three Decades
Previous Article in Journal
A Values-Based Approach to Exploring Synergies between Livestock Farming and Landscape Conservation in Galicia (Spain)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Quantitative Assessment of Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1989;

In the Presence of Climate Change, the Use of Fertilizers and the Effect of Income on Agricultural Emissions

Department of Economics, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara 06530, Turkey
Banking and Finance, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
Authors are listed in the alphabetical order and share the contributions equally.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of Climate Changes: From Sustainability Perspectives)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1575 KB, uploaded 31 October 2017]   |  


This study looks into the factual link between nitrogen fertilizer use and the land annual mean temperature anomalies arising from climate change, incorporating the effect of income and agriculture share to understand better their impact on emissions from agricultural activities along climate indicators. The study unearths causalities associated with this link by employing the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) with back-dated actual panel data specifically constructed for this study by combining four datasets from 2002 to 2010. In the long-run, the causality is significant and unidirectional, indicating that income, agriculture share, and land temperature anomalies cause agricultural emissions, and that disequilibrium from such emissions is not eliminated within a year. In the short-run, the effective use of nitrogen fertilizers and other associated agricultural practices can be achieved as countries approach per capita income of 7000 USD. Changes in the structure of economies have an expected effect on agricultural emissions. Temperature anomalies increase agricultural emissions from nitrogen fertilizers, possibly due to the fact that the potential negative impacts of these anomalies are mitigated by farmers through changes in crop production inputs. Therefore, as part of adoption strategies, to avoid the excessive and inefficient use of nitrogen fertilizers by farmers, economic incentives should be aligned with the national and global incentives of sustainability. View Full-Text
Keywords: agriculture; nitrogen fertilizer; climate change; VECM agriculture; nitrogen fertilizer; climate change; VECM

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Celikkol Erbas, B.; Guven Solakoglu, E. In the Presence of Climate Change, the Use of Fertilizers and the Effect of Income on Agricultural Emissions. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1989.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top