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Open AccessArticle

Optimal Operation and Management of Smart Grid System with LPC and BESS in Fault Conditions

Faculty of Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara-cho Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121282
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Electric Power Systems Research)
Distributed generators (DG) using renewable energy sources (RESs) have been attracting special attention within distribution systems. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation and reverse power flow in the smart grid. Therefore, the smart grid needs a solution for voltage control, power flow control and power outage prevention. This paper proposes a decision technique of optimal reference scheduling for a battery energy storage system (BESS), inverters interfacing with a DG and voltage control devices for optimal operation. Moreover, the reconfiguration of the distribution system is made possible by the installation of a loop power flow controller (LPC). Two separate simulations are provided to maintain the reliability in the stable power supply and economical aspects. First, the effectiveness of the smart grid with installed BESS or LPC devices is demonstrated in fault situations. Second, the active smart grid using LCPs is proposed. Real-time techniques of the dual scheduling algorithm are applied to the system. The aforementioned control objective is formulated and solved using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with an adaptive inertia weight (AIW) function. The effectiveness of the optimal operation in ordinal and fault situations is verified by numerical simulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: voltage control; distributed generator; battery energy storage system; reverse power flow; loop power flow controller; fault analysis; renewable energy source; active smart grid; adaptive inertia weight particle swarm optimization voltage control; distributed generator; battery energy storage system; reverse power flow; loop power flow controller; fault analysis; renewable energy source; active smart grid; adaptive inertia weight particle swarm optimization
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Shigenobu, R.; Noorzad, A.S.; Muarapaz, C.; Yona, A.; Senjyu, T. Optimal Operation and Management of Smart Grid System with LPC and BESS in Fault Conditions. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1282.

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