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Article

Assessing Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an Alternative Material for Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in Cold Regions in China—A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach

1
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
2
School of Architecture, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Víctor Yepes
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/su8101047
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Timber building has gained more and more attention worldwide due to it being a generic renewable material and having low environmental impact. It is widely accepted that the use of timber may be able to reduce the embodied energy of a building. However, the development of timber buildings in China is not as rapid as in some other countries. This may be because of the limitations of building regulations and technological development. Several new policies have been or are being implemented in China in order to encourage the use of timber in building construction and this could lead to a revolutionary change in the building industry in China. This paper is the first one to examine the feasibility of using Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an alternative solution to concrete by means of a cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessment in China. A seven-storey reference concrete building in Xi’an was selected as a case study in comparison with a redesigned CLT building. Two cities in China, in cold and severe cold regions (Xi’an and Harbin), were selected for this research. The assessment includes three different stages of the life span of a building: materialisation, operation, and end-of-life. The inventory data used in the materialisation stage was mostly local, in order to ensure that the assessment appropriately reflects the situation in China. Energy consumption in the operation stage was obtained from simulation by commercialised software IESTM, and different scenarios for recycling of timber material in the end-of-life are discussed in this paper. The results from this paper show that using CLT to replace conventional carbon intensive material would reduce energy consumption by more than 30% and reduce CO2 emission by more than 40% in both cities. This paper supports, and has shown the potential of, CLT being used in cold regions with proper detailing to minimise environmental impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cross Laminated Timber (CLT); cold regions; cradle-to-grave; LCA Cross Laminated Timber (CLT); cold regions; cradle-to-grave; LCA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Guo, H.; Sun, C.; Chang, W.-S. Assessing Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an Alternative Material for Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in Cold Regions in China—A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8101047

AMA Style

Liu Y, Guo H, Sun C, Chang W-S. Assessing Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an Alternative Material for Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in Cold Regions in China—A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach. Sustainability. 2016; 8(10):1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8101047

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Ying, Haibo Guo, Cheng Sun, and Wen-Shao Chang. 2016. "Assessing Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an Alternative Material for Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in Cold Regions in China—A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach" Sustainability 8, no. 10: 1047. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8101047

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