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Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 1025;

Scaling up and out as a Pathway for Food System Transitions

Sustainable Places Research Institute, Cardiff University, CF10 3AT Cardiff, UK
Public Health and Wellbeing Research Group, University of the West of England, BS161QY Bristol, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Moya Kneafsey and Iain Gordon
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 4 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
Full-Text   |   PDF [234 KB, uploaded 13 October 2016]


This paper contributes to the understanding of sustainability transitions by analysing processes of scaling up and out as change pathway. It defines scaling up and out as a distinct form of policy transfer focused on programme implementation, with continuity of actors across jurisdictions. We detail how scaling up and out occurs, introducing a new mechanism to policy transfer frameworks. This is explicated through the case study of Food for Life (FFL), a civil society innovation programme promoting sustainable healthy food in public settings. We highlight why FFL was scaled up and out, how this was achieved, by whom, and the results and success factors. The case study demonstrates the importance of interrogating motivations for transferring policies, and how these influence whether successful outcomes are achieved. This requires a revised framework for analysing policy transfer, with greater attention to the links between motives and outcomes, and a less binary understanding of agents’ roles. Where scaling is the mode of policy transfer, we suggest that continuous involvement of at least one transfer agent across the process is significant to success. We conclude by highlighting implications for future research into policy transfer and food system transitions. View Full-Text
Keywords: transitions; scaling up; scaling out; policy transfer; public food transitions; scaling up; scaling out; policy transfer; public food
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pitt, H.; Jones, M. Scaling up and out as a Pathway for Food System Transitions. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1025.

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