Next Article in Journal
A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul
Previous Article in Journal
Assessing the Communication Quality of CSR Reports. A Case Study on Four Spanish Food Companies
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11032-11049;

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Tourism-Based Leisure Farms in Taiwan

Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Department of Industry Technology Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, No.62 Shenjhong Rd., Yanchao District, Kaohsiung 82446, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [980 KB, uploaded 12 August 2015]   |  


This research is the first attempt of a carbon emission investigation of tourism-based farms. A total of 36 cases were investigated. The result reveals that each tourist returns an average revenue of 28.6 USD and generates an average 10.9 kg-CO2eq per visit of carbon emissions. The average carbon emission density for each land area is 8.2 t/ha·year and is 245 kg/m²·year for each floor area. It is estimated that the overall carbon emissions reach 321,751 tons annually. The tourism-based farms were clustered into five categories, based on their business characteristics. It was found that high-end vacation leisure farms produce 2.46 times the carbon emissions than natural eco-conservation farms. Carbon emissions were 42% higher than the annual average in July and August. A secondary high season is in February, but it is merely higher than the annual average by 8% because of the mild climate. Two significant models for predicting carbon emissions were constructed by stepwise regression. As agriculture administrative authorities in Taiwan gradually have begun admitting the cultivated lands for multi-purpose usage, tourism-based farms have been increasing drastically. This study provides references for both public authorities and farm managers in exploring the issues with regard to carbon emissions and farm sustainability. View Full-Text
Keywords: tourism-based farms; energy consumption; carbon emission; low-carbon tourism; farm tourism tourism-based farms; energy consumption; carbon emission; low-carbon tourism; farm tourism

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, K.-T.; Wang, J.C. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Tourism-Based Leisure Farms in Taiwan. Sustainability 2015, 7, 11032-11049.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top