Next Article in Journal
Development of a Framework for Sustainable Outsourcing: Analytic Balanced Scorecard Method (A-BSC)
Previous Article in Journal
Training Conservation Practitioners to be Better Decision Makers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Agricultural Feedstock to Energy Conversion Rate on Bioenergy and GHG Emissions
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Thermal Behaviour Investigation of Unbalanced Modules

MOBI—Mobility, Logistics and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan, 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cornelia A. Bulucea and Nikos E. Mastorakis
Sustainability 2015, 7(7), 8374-8398;
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 21 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 29 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
PDF [4865 KB, uploaded 29 June 2015]


In this paper, the thermal behaviour of an unbalanced battery module made of large lithium iron phosphate cylindrical cells of 18 Ah nominal capacity is investigated during its discharge with 18 A, 54 A and 90 A currents. For this study, several cells were assigned in the module to 5%, 10% and 20% initial depth of discharge (DoD). The thermal management of the cells in the module is achieved based on a forced air cooling. The computations of the temperature distribution inside the cells and the module are performed with a two-dimensional modelling approach. During the discharges, the cells with a non-zero initial DoD show a more pronounced temperature increase up to 5% compared to the reference cells. In the end of the three discharges, the highest temperatures 26.5 °C (18 A), 29.6 °C (54 A) and 32.3 °C (90 A), respectively, are reached for the cells with the highest initial DoD. For these cells, with the increase in the current rate, the highest amount of total heat exceeds 25 W. The reactive and the active heats are found to be the main contributors to the total heat generated by the cells. This study provides the effect of the initial DoD of the cells on the temperature development occurring in an unbalanced battery module during its discharge. View Full-Text
Keywords: unbalanced module; lithium iron phosphate; cylindrical cells; temperature distribution; two-dimensional modelling unbalanced module; lithium iron phosphate; cylindrical cells; temperature distribution; two-dimensional modelling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Capron, O.; Samba, A.; Omar, N.; Coosemans, T.; Bossche, P.V.; Van Mierlo, J. Lithium-Ion Batteries: Thermal Behaviour Investigation of Unbalanced Modules. Sustainability 2015, 7, 8374-8398.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top