Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments
2. Literature Review
- An aging society will have a substantial impact on future transportation systems, but the understanding people’s travel during their aging process and any associated co-morbidity they might have remains imperfectly understood from a mobility research perspective.
- In Australia, there has been little study that has examined the social networks of older people and their activities, their travel behavior, issues of accessibility to land uses, mobility difficulties and social isolation.
- For the purposes of understanding more fully the link between spatial interaction and social networks, social networks are based (1) in the home; (2) outside of the home, of which physical travel is necessary. For the purpose of data collection in a research design, social networks in the home might exclude all interactions with more immediate family members (note that in many cultures it is family life that contributes the greatest to quality of life) but include visits to friends and relatives, and communication by Internet, mobile phone and land line and postal services.
- To establish the social networks outside of the house, standard household travel questionnaires or travel activity diaries used by transportation planners need to be augmented to include the number of people met at each destination (if any), and the relationship of that exchange.
- There is still insufficient research on the factors/motives that might encourage older people to shift towards a less automobile-oriented lifestyle.
- Detailed micro-level investigations should be undertaken into the design criteria of successful neighborhoods where older people feel comfortable with walking and using public transportation.
- Although there is evidence that some older people self-limit their own driving, others remain confident drivers and the impossibility of classifying driving ability by age alone raises questions on how licensing regulations work to identify any driver who is actually unfit to be on the highway.
3.1. Situational Context
3.2. Transport Policy—Past and Future
3.3. Older People’s Travel Preferences in Low-Density Environments
3.3.1. Travel-Mode Choice for Daily Shopping
3.3.2. Willingness to Make One Less Journey by Automobile per Week for Sustainability Reasons
3.3.3. Older People’s Public Transit Use in Canberra
|Districts||Bus Trip Origin||Bus Trip Destination|
|60+ Bus Users||%||60+ Bus Users||%|
4. Discussion-Policy Implications and Research Directions
4.1. Older Drivers’ Safety and Licensing
4.2. Evidence-Based Policy Research on Older People’s Safety Issues
4.3. Understanding the Aspirations of Older People in Organizing a Lifestyle
Conflicts of Interest
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Nakanishi, H.; Black, J. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments. Sustainability 2015, 7, 7289-7309. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7067289
Nakanishi H, Black J. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments. Sustainability. 2015; 7(6):7289-7309. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7067289Chicago/Turabian Style
Nakanishi, Hitomi, and John Black. 2015. "Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments" Sustainability 7, no. 6: 7289-7309. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7067289