Next Article in Journal
Consumer Acceptance of Eco-Labeled Fish: A Mexican Case Study
Previous Article in Journal
Research on the Multi-Period Small-Signal Stability Probability of a Power System with Wind Farms Based on the Markov Chain
Article

Delivering a Multi-Functional and Resilient Urban Forest

1
School of Geography Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
2
Birmingham Institute of Forest Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston B15 2TT, UK
3
Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research/Atmospheric Environmental Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
4
ImaginationLancaster, Lancaster Institute for the Contemporary Arts, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
5
Faculty of the Creative Industries, Southampton Solent University, East Park Terrace, Southampton SO14 0YN, UK
6
Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Building, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
7
Faculty of the Arts, Design and Media, Birmingham City University, Birmingham B4 7BD, UK
8
College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
9
London School of Commerce, London SE1 1NX, UK
10
Institute of Chartered Foresters, Brunswick Court, Brunswick Square, Bristol BS2 8PE, UK
11
School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4600-4624; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044600
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 4 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
Tree planting is widely advocated and applied in urban areas, with large-scale projects underway in cities globally. Numerous potential benefits are used to justify these planting campaigns. However, reports of poor tree survival raise questions about the ability of such projects to deliver on their promises over the long-term. Each potential benefit requires different supporting conditions—relating not only to the type and placement of the tree, but also to the broader urban system within which it is embedded. This set of supporting conditions may not always be mutually compatible and may not persist for the lifetime of the tree. Here, we demonstrate a systems-based approach that makes these dependencies, synergies, and tensions more explicit, allowing them to be used to test the decadal-scale resilience of urban street trees. Our analysis highlights social, environmental, and economic assumptions that are implicit within planting projects; notably that high levels of maintenance and public support for urban street trees will persist throughout their natural lifespan, and that the surrounding built form will remain largely unchanged. Whilst the vulnerability of each benefit may be highly context specific, we identify approaches that address some typical weaknesses, making a functional, resilient, urban forest more attainable. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban; forest; tree; resilient; resilience; ecosystem services; scenarios; systems; futures urban; forest; tree; resilient; resilience; ecosystem services; scenarios; systems; futures
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Hale, J.D.; Pugh, T.A.M.; Sadler, J.P.; Boyko, C.T.; Brown, J.; Caputo, S.; Caserio, M.; Coles, R.; Farmani, R.; Hales, C.; Horsey, R.; Hunt, D.V.L.; Leach, J.M.; Rogers, C.D.F.; MacKenzie, A.R. Delivering a Multi-Functional and Resilient Urban Forest. Sustainability 2015, 7, 4600-4624. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044600

AMA Style

Hale JD, Pugh TAM, Sadler JP, Boyko CT, Brown J, Caputo S, Caserio M, Coles R, Farmani R, Hales C, Horsey R, Hunt DVL, Leach JM, Rogers CDF, MacKenzie AR. Delivering a Multi-Functional and Resilient Urban Forest. Sustainability. 2015; 7(4):4600-4624. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044600

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hale, James D., Thomas A.M. Pugh, Jon P. Sadler, Christopher T. Boyko, Julie Brown, Silvio Caputo, Maria Caserio, Richard Coles, Raziyeh Farmani, Chantal Hales, Russell Horsey, Dexter V.L. Hunt, Joanne M. Leach, Christopher D.F. Rogers, and A. R. MacKenzie. 2015. "Delivering a Multi-Functional and Resilient Urban Forest" Sustainability 7, no. 4: 4600-4624. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044600

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop