Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania
2. Modeling and Simulation of Solar Irradiation
2.1. Extraterrestrial Irradiation
- S is the solar constant;
- n is the days’ number of the year;
- φ is the latitude of the considered location;
- δ represents the declination of the Earth;
- and ωs is the solar angle.
Influence of atmosphere
2.2. Terrestrial Irradiation
- Adnot model, which models global solar irradiation under conditions of a clear sky, by using the relationship :
2.3. Solar Irradiation Absorbed by a Photovoltaic Panel without Concentration
- ρ is the reflection coefficient of the Earth surface; and
- Gg is the global radiation on a horizontal surface.
|Calculation (W/m2)||Literature (W/m2)||Relative Error (%)||Medium Error (%)||Calculation (W/m2)||Literature (W/m2)||Relative Error (%)||Medium Error (%)|
3. Mathematical Model of Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panel with Low Concentration
- x is the angle between the mirror and the photovoltaic module, and is a constant parameter;
- h is the maximum incidence angle created by the solar ray with the normal to the photovoltaic arrays;
- k represents the ratio between the mirrors width (Lm) and the photovoltaic module width (Lp);
- c1, c2 are the width coefficients of PV module brushed by the rays reflected by the mirror;
- kl is the longitudinal deviation coefficient, defined as the ratio between the additional length of the mirror (necessary for the compensation of the deviation of solar rays reflected, caused by the elevation deviations of the PV module from the solar elevation) and the photovoltaic module width.
4. Experimental Results
- the models Adnot and Empiric for the global irradiation assessment can be adapted in the best way for the conditions of the location chosen for this study;
- the main advantage of these models is their simplicity (these models have as input parameters only the location and time marks), which makes them easy to use in practice;
- the values of solar irradiations obtained through the simulations are close enough to those indicated on the maps elaborated by professional institutes for the site took into study;
- during travel through the atmosphere the solar rays decrease intensity as they are approaching the Earth;
- the values of the solar irradiation on the PV panel plane are roughly two times higher than those on the PV panel plane without a concentration system.
Conflicts of Interest
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Alboteanu, I.L.; Bulucea, C.A.; Degeratu, S. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania. Sustainability 2015, 7, 2644-2661. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7032644
Alboteanu IL, Bulucea CA, Degeratu S. Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania. Sustainability. 2015; 7(3):2644-2661. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7032644Chicago/Turabian Style
Alboteanu, Ionel L., Cornelia A. Bulucea, and Sonia Degeratu. 2015. "Estimating Solar Irradiation Absorbed by Photovoltaic Panels with Low Concentration Located in Craiova, Romania" Sustainability 7, no. 3: 2644-2661. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7032644