2. History of Terra Preta
3. Terra Preta Sanitation Systems
- Dry TPS systems;
- Systems with flush water.
3.1. Dry TPS Systems (without Flush Water)
3.2. TPS Systems with Flush Water
- Integrated TPS systems;
- TP made of settled sludge of septic tanks or pour flush toilets;
- TP made of sewage sludge after collection and treatment in a WWTP.
3.2.1. Integrated TPS System
3.2.2. TP Made of Settled Sludge from Septic Tanks or Pour Flush Toilets
3.2.3. TP Made of Sewage Sludge
4. Case Studies
- An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon (nowadays Brazil) highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste management, water protection and sanitation, renewable energy;
- TPS System is the name of the concept, which aims to use this technology for a safe and recycling-oriented treatment of wastes;
- TPS System can be implemented in different steps of the sanitation chain. Major driver for TPS is the efficient use of organic matter as well as macro and micro nutrients;
- In light of decreasing soil fertility and humus quality worldwide and desertification, TPS can play an important role to solve the sanitation problem and sustainable soil management, which leads to increased food security.
Conflicts of Interest
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