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Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future?

1
Institut für Botanik, Herrenhäuserstr. 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany
2
Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Guatemala
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Sustainability 2014, 6(2), 836-856; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6020836
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatment have been applied in aquaculture systems. Constructed wetlands technology is becoming more and more important in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) because wetlands have proven to be well-established and a cost-effective method for treating wastewater. This review gives an overview about possibilities to avoid the pollution of water resources; it focuses initially on the use of systems combining aquaculture and plants with a historical review of aquaculture and the treatment of its effluents. It discusses the present state, taking into account the load of pollutants in wastewater such as nitrates and phosphates, and finishes with recommendations to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of water resources in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaculture; aquaponics; halophytes; nutrients; Salicornia spp.; wastewater; wetlands aquaculture; aquaponics; halophytes; nutrients; Salicornia spp.; wastewater; wetlands
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Turcios, A.E.; Papenbrock, J. Sustainable Treatment of Aquaculture Effluents—What Can We Learn from the Past for the Future? Sustainability 2014, 6, 836-856.

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