- freely available
Sustainability 2014, 6(1), 375-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6010375
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2. Environmental Change and Migration: Theoretical Debates
3. Socio-Cultural Characteristics of the Frafra and Biali
3.1. The Frafra in the Bongo District
3.2. The Biali of Materi and Cobly District
4.1. Research Design and Methodology
4.2. Methodological Challenges
5.1. Drivers of Migration towards Northwest Benin
“If you do not open yourself to others, you cannot understand where good manners come from. I have two houses in Ouaga 2000 [a hub quarter in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso], so I came to follow in the footsteps of my old father who loves agriculture. I prefer the freedom of the bush than the stresses of the city, so I followed my father in his desire to conquer new lands because he wanted to settle in northern Benin. So here I am now”.
“I am a trader. I sell tyres, spare parts and food. I also have corn fields, and I own an area of two hectares. My spouses help me to sow and harvest”.
The Zarma “(...) from Niger, expatriated after the hunger of 1931, which has remained an unforgettable experience. Afraid of being deported to their country of origin, they were established provisionally in the arid regions bordering the Dahomey and Niger. Afterwards (late 1932), they came to live in the county of Pabli, where they were well received by people who gave them land for cultivation. (...) Their desire to settle permanently in our region is such that they expressed a preference to die if a repatriation policy were to force them to return to their country of origin. They established large plantations, and particularly in relation to the Kérou, the vast expanses of cleared lands that you can see from the caravan pathway are the product of their work”.(own translation from French Colonial Archives) 
“(...) living in an overpopulated country where they did not find enough arable land. They came to settle in the township of Birni and subsequently discovered valuable resources for themselves. These new settlements, which were established by this strong, sane and hardworking tribe, became important. The immigrants were subsequently welcome, albeit reluctantly, by autochthons”.(own translation from French Colonial Archives) 
“My parents came here because they were herdsmen and fishermen. They fished, but they were also cattle drivers; they bought and sold animals, and decided to stay. They first settled in Togo near the border with Benin and then came to Tantéga where I was born. My father died there six years ago and my mom is still alive, thanks to God”.
5.2. Marriage Migrations among the Biali
The first type is the Tchahereme, which more frequently “consists of exchanging two daughters from one family between two men from another family. Persons involved in the exchanges may be a uterine or half-brother, or the paternal uncle of the girl. The exchanging person (normally male) has to meet a girl that he likes, after which he makes inquiries and background checks on her and the family. Afterwards, he establishes contact by going to her family. When the meeting is set, they inform the girl’s family that they would like the “mother of the water”, referring to their daughter. The host family then states their conditions for handing over their daughter for marriage”. (p.33–37)
5.3. Migrations of the Frafra to Southern Ghana
“Yes, the bride price is part of the reason for delays in getting married. For instance, imagine you go to marry and they tell you to give two cows and seven sheep and you don’t have any of these; how are you going to get married or give these things? But if you meet reasonable or tolerant in-laws, they ask you to pay them little by little, and you can get married”.
“You travel down south, and you see their way of marriage; you see that it is less expensive. You see how your own is expensive, and that creates a fear in you. First, you don’t even think of that as a reason for not marrying, but you have now seen others. They marry cheaper than you do. You wonder whether you should waste all this money to buy bulls or cows for the dowry. You become discouraged”.
6. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
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