Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Degree of Sustainability in Extractive Reserves in the Amazon Biome Using the Fuzzy Logic Tool for Decision Making
Previous Article in Journal
Reverse Engineering of Building Layout Plan through Checking the Setting out of a Building on a Site Using 3D Laser Scanning Technology for Sustainable Building Construction: A Case Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Overview of Dental Solid Waste Management and Associated Environmental Impacts: A Materials Perspective
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Transforming Healthcare in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Vision 2030’s Impact

Zakaria A. Mani
1,* and
Krzysztof Goniewicz
Nursing College, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia
Department of Security, Polish Air Force University, 08-521 Deblin, Poland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2024, 16(8), 3277;
Submission received: 12 March 2024 / Revised: 9 April 2024 / Accepted: 12 April 2024 / Published: 15 April 2024
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Waste Management in the Healthcare Sector)


This comprehensive rapid review meticulously evaluates the transformative influence of Vision 2030 on the healthcare sector in Saudi Arabia. Vision 2030, with its broad scope, targets an extensive overhaul of healthcare through infrastructure enhancement, digital health adoption, workforce empowerment, innovative public health initiatives, and advancements in quality of care and patient safety. By employing a rigorous analytical approach, this review synthesizes a broad spectrum of data highlighting Saudi Arabia’s significant progress toward establishing an accessible, efficient, and superior healthcare system. It delves into the kingdom’s alignment with global healthcare trends and its distinctive contributions, notably in digital health and public health, illustrating a proactive stance on future healthcare challenges. The analysis rigorously explores Vision 2030’s ambitious objectives and the concrete outcomes achieved, providing deep insights into the evolving healthcare landscape in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, it assesses the global ramifications of these reformative efforts, emphasizing the pivotal themes of innovation, equity, and excellence as the foundation for future healthcare advancements. This review not only sheds light on Vision 2030’s extensive impact on Saudi healthcare but also positions the kingdom as an exemplar of healthcare innovation and reform on the global stage, offering valuable lessons for healthcare policy and practice around the world.

1. Introduction

Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 represents a bold leap toward transforming its healthcare system, aligning with the kingdom’s broader goals of economic diversification and societal reform. Initiated by His Royal Highness Prince Mohammed bin Salman, this strategic blueprint aims not only to shift the economic reliance away from oil but to significantly enhance the nation’s healthcare infrastructure, quality of care, and accessibility [1]. At the heart of Vision 2030 is an acknowledgment of healthcare as a pivotal pillar for achieving a thriving economy and a vibrant society. This plan’s ambition is mirrored in its comprehensive approach, which includes infrastructure development, digital health innovations, workforce empowerment, and a focus on public health [2].
As Saudi Arabia embarks on this ambitious transformation, it prompts a crucial inquiry into the extent and impact of these healthcare reforms. This question gains further importance when considered within the global context of healthcare’s evolution, where nations strive to balance innovation with accessibility and quality care. The relevance of examining Saudi Arabia’s healthcare journey extends beyond its borders, offering insights and lessons for countries pursuing similar healthcare transformations [3].
This review aims to dissect the multifaceted healthcare changes under Vision 2030, assessing the advancements made and challenges encountered. Our exploration delves into several critical areas (the expansion of healthcare services, the adoption of emerging technologies, and the strategic initiatives aimed at public health improvement). Additionally, we scrutinize the broader implications of these reforms on the socioeconomic landscape of Saudi Arabia, considering how enhancements in healthcare contribute to the kingdom’s goals of economic resilience and social well-being.
While Vision 2030 aligns with global healthcare improvement efforts, a notable gap in the literature is the lack of a comprehensive evaluation of Saudi Arabia’s healthcare initiatives in comparison to international benchmarks. Countries like Singapore and Switzerland, renowned for their exemplary healthcare systems, serve as valuable points of reference [4]. This absence underscores the necessity of our study, which seeks to systematically assess Vision 2030’s impact in juxtaposition to these global standards.
By situating Saudi Arabia’s healthcare reforms within an international context, this review aims to highlight both the accomplishments and areas ripe for enhancement. In doing so, it provides a nuanced understanding of Vision 2030’s efficacy in addressing contemporary healthcare challenges [5,6]. Furthermore, our analysis extends to a global audience, weaving together Vision 2030’s ambitious objectives with the tangible transformations within Saudi Arabia’s healthcare landscape [7,8,9]. This approach not only showcases the kingdom’s proactive steps toward future-ready healthcare but also positions its journey as a pivotal case study in holistic health system transformation worldwide.
Our research seeks to offer a comprehensive evaluation of Vision 2030’s impact on healthcare in Saudi Arabia. Through a detailed examination of the initiatives undertaken, the successes achieved, and the hurdles faced, we aim to contribute evidence-based insights to the global discourse on healthcare reform. By highlighting the interconnectedness of healthcare transformation with broader socioeconomic goals, this review endeavors to illuminate the strategic pathways for future research and policy development in global healthcare transformation, engaging an international audience in a narrative that showcases Saudi Arabia’s efforts and strategic initiatives in shaping a future-oriented healthcare system.

2. Materials and Methods

This rapid review utilized a structured framework to examine the multifaceted impact of Vision 2030 on healthcare transformation in Saudi Arabia. Adhering to rigorous standards, our methodology encompassed systematic data collection and analysis, ensuring the literature met specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The process began with electronic database searches, followed by a thorough evaluation of articles for relevance based on pre-established parameters. Following selection, we engaged in detailed thematic analysis, a quality assessment, and synthesis of the data, paying close attention to Saudi Arabia’s unique healthcare context.

2.1. Search Protocol

The search protocol was meticulously designed to encompass the period from 2010 to 2023, a timeframe strategically chosen to capture the evolution of the healthcare transformation in Saudi Arabia, particularly in the context of Vision 2030. This period marks a significant phase in the kingdom’s healthcare sector, beginning before the announcement of Vision 2030 to provide a baseline for pre-2030 conditions and extending through the plan’s early implementation phases. The chosen timeframe allows for a comprehensive analysis of the shifts in healthcare policies, technological advancements, and infrastructural developments influenced by or aligned with Vision 2030’s objectives. Keywords including ‘Vision 2030’, ‘healthcare transformation’, ‘digital health’, and ‘Saudi Arabia’ were utilized across databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, ensuring a thorough literature retrieval process tailored to each database’s specific indexing terms and search capabilities.

2.2. Literature Screening Criteria

In our meticulous screening process for literature, we prioritized English-language, peer-reviewed articles, reviews, and case studies with a direct focus on the impact of Vision 2030 on the healthcare transformation within Saudi Arabia. Studies not specifically addressing Saudi Arabia’s healthcare system, editorials, and abstracts were excluded. Additionally, from the initial pool of 768 screened studies, exclusions (n = 261) were primarily due to a lack of direct relevance to Vision 2030 or being outside our review scope. Furthermore, the category ‘Studies not retrieved’ (n = 278) pertained to articles whose full text was inaccessible within our institutional parameters or that were published in languages other than English, hence not meeting our inclusion criteria. This detailed approach ensured a focused and comprehensive analysis of the relevant literature.

2.3. Article Evaluation Process

The article evaluation process was meticulously structured to ensure a comprehensive and unbiased review of the literature. Following the removal of duplicates, two independent reviewers conducted a detailed screening of titles and abstracts based on predetermined relevance criteria aligned with the objectives of Vision 2030. To ensure the integrity of the selection process, any discrepancies between reviewers were thoroughly discussed and, when necessary, adjudicated by consulting a third, senior reviewer. This collaborative approach guaranteed that only the most pertinent and high-quality articles were included for full review. Each selected article underwent a rigorous assessment, with reviewers evaluating the depth, relevance, and contributions of the findings to our understanding of Vision 2030’s impact on healthcare transformation.

2.4. Study Insights and Methodologies

The methodology section of our review highlights the varied research approaches employed across the studies we analyzed, reflecting the multidimensional nature of healthcare transformation research. The methodologies spanned both qualitative and quantitative domains, incorporating interviews that provided in-depth personal insights, surveys that offered quantitative data on healthcare outcomes, and comprehensive literature reviews that contextualized Saudi Arabia’s healthcare evolution. This diversity underscores the complexity of healthcare reform and allows for a multifaceted understanding of Vision 2030’s impact, accommodating the unique challenges and opportunities within the Saudi healthcare system.

2.5. Data Compilation and Thematic Exploration

In our data compilation phase, we meticulously extracted data regarding the objectives, methodologies, main findings, and implications of each study, ensuring uniformity and precision. Our thematic analysis went beyond the mere identification of themes; we employed a rigorous, systematic process to delve into the data, uncovering emerging patterns and gaining deeper insights into the transformative impact of Vision 2030. This approach allowed us to construct a nuanced narrative of healthcare reform, highlighting both achievements and challenges, as reflected in the current literature.

2.6. Quality Verification

To ensure the highest quality of included studies, we employed an adapted version of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. This comprehensive tool allowed us to meticulously evaluate the reliability and validity of each study’s methodology and findings. Criteria such as study design, data analysis, and result interpretation were scrutinized to determine their contribution to our understanding of Vision 2030’s healthcare impact. This detailed appraisal process underpinned our study selection and informed our analysis, guaranteeing that only studies of the highest caliber were incorporated into our review.

2.7. Synthesizing Information

In synthesizing the collected data, we employed a narrative synthesis approach to distill and organize the studies into thematic categories, such as digital health, public health initiatives, and infrastructure enhancement. This method allowed for a holistic analysis, where findings from individual studies were woven into a comprehensive narrative, revealing patterns and divergences in the data. Through comparative analysis within these thematic groups, we were able to identify overarching trends and distill the cumulative impact of Vision 2030 on Saudi Arabia’s healthcare system, offering nuanced insights into its transformative journey.

2.8. Resolution of Discrepancies

Any differences in opinion between reviewers regarding article relevance or the interpretation of findings were resolved through discussion. In cases where a consensus could not be reached, a senior reviewer provided the final decision.

3. Results

In our comprehensive examination, we meticulously reviewed a diverse array of studies (Figure 1) in order to illuminate the transformative landscape of healthcare in Saudi Arabia under Vision 2030.
Through rigorous content analysis, we have distilled several pivotal domains that are central to understanding the multifaceted evolution of the healthcare system. The following sections offer a detailed exploration of these critical areas, showcasing the significant strides made toward achieving Vision 2030’s ambitious goals. Simultaneously, we highlight ongoing challenges that demand focused attention to ensure the successful realization of these transformative healthcare objectives.

3.1. Infrastructure and Capacity Building

Vision 2030 has catalyzed a transformative leap in the healthcare sector of Saudi Arabia through targeted investments and forward-looking strategies [11]. This initiative has not only led to the expansion of healthcare infrastructure but also introduced a paradigm shift toward a more integrated and technologically advanced healthcare ecosystem. The emergence of cutting-edge facilities underscores a strategic pivot from quantity to quality, aiming to establish a healthcare model that is sustainable and adaptable to the evolving needs of the population [12]. This strategic shift highlights a commitment to not merely expanding the healthcare network but significantly enhancing the quality of care, patient satisfaction, and system efficiency.
Central to this transformative agenda is the emphasis on leveraging technology and innovation to increase healthcare capacity [6,13]. Smart hospitals equipped with the latest medical technologies and digital systems are being established to improve healthcare delivery and patient outcomes [14]. These futuristic facilities are designed to facilitate seamless patient experiences, from appointment scheduling to remote monitoring, ensuring that healthcare services are more accessible and efficient [15].
The geographic distribution of these new facilities has been meticulously planned to ensure equitable access to healthcare services across the kingdom, addressing previous disparities in healthcare availability [16]. Rural and previously underserved areas have seen significant improvements in healthcare access, with new clinics and hospitals reducing the need for long-distance travel for basic medical services [17].
In addition to physical infrastructure, Vision 2030 emphasizes the development of healthcare services that meet the evolving needs of the Saudi population. This includes the expansion of specialized care services, such as cardiology, oncology, and mental health services, providing comprehensive care that addresses both physical and mental health needs [18,19,20].
The strategic approach to infrastructure and capacity building also includes the integration of research and education within healthcare facilities. Leading-edge research centers and training programs for healthcare professionals are being established alongside hospitals to foster innovation and ensure a continuous pipeline of skilled healthcare workers [21].
The financing of these ambitious projects reflects a strategic partnership between the public and private sectors, with the government facilitating investments and encouraging private sector participation in healthcare provision [22]. This collaborative model aims to diversify funding sources for healthcare infrastructure, ensuring sustainability and innovation.
Environmental sustainability and resilience to future challenges, such as pandemics, are integral to the design and operation of new healthcare facilities [23]. Green building principles and advanced health safety protocols are being adopted to ensure that healthcare infrastructure is sustainable and prepared for future health crises [24,25].
The expansion and modernization of healthcare infrastructure under Vision 2030 are closely monitored and regulated by comprehensive governance frameworks to ensure that projects align with national health objectives and quality standards [26,27]. This regulatory oversight guarantees that infrastructure developments contribute effectively to the overall improvement of the healthcare system.
As Saudi Arabia continues to advance its healthcare infrastructure and capacity, the foundation is being laid for a future-proof healthcare system that is capable of meeting the needs of its population with efficiency, equity, and innovation. This ambitious journey toward healthcare transformation showcases the kingdom’s commitment to enhancing the well-being and quality of life of its citizens, positioning Saudi Arabia as a leading healthcare innovator in the region and beyond.

3.2. Digital Health Adoption and Innovation

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has embraced digital health adoption and innovation as a cornerstone of its Vision 2030 healthcare transformation [27]. This commitment is evident in the widespread integration of telemedicine, electronic health records (EHRs), and artificial intelligence (AI) across the healthcare spectrum [28,29]. These digital health initiatives are revolutionizing the way healthcare is delivered, making it more accessible, efficient, and personalized than ever before.
Telemedicine has emerged as a key component of Saudi Arabia’s healthcare strategy, breaking down geographical barriers and making medical consultations and follow-up care accessible to those in remote areas [30]. This has been particularly crucial in enhancing the continuity of care and ensuring that expert medical advice is just a video call away for every citizen and resident.
The implementation of comprehensive EHR systems across healthcare facilities is streamlining patient information management [31]. By enabling the secure and efficient exchange of patient data among healthcare providers, EHRs are improving the coordination of care, reducing duplicative testing, and ultimately enhancing patient outcomes.
Artificial intelligence is playing a transformative role in healthcare delivery in Saudi Arabia [32]. AI-powered solutions are being deployed for diagnostic support, predictive analytics, and personalized medicine, offering new insights into patient care and significantly improving the accuracy and speed of diagnosis and treatment plans.
Innovation in digital health is supported by robust infrastructure and regulatory frameworks that ensure the security and privacy of patient data [33]. The Saudi government has implemented stringent cybersecurity measures to protect sensitive health information, building trust in digital health services among patients and healthcare providers [34].
The drive toward digital health is also empowering patients to take an active role in their health management [35]. Mobile health applications and wearable devices are providing individuals with tools to monitor their health, track progress toward fitness goals, and manage chronic conditions more effectively [36].
To foster a culture of innovation, Saudi Arabia is investing in digital health startups and research initiatives [37]. These investments are creating an ecosystem that encourages the development of new technologies and solutions to meet the unique healthcare challenges of the kingdom.
Training and education programs for healthcare professionals are being enhanced to include digital health competencies, ensuring that the workforce is prepared to utilize these new technologies effectively [38]. This focus on education is critical for the successful adoption and integration of digital health solutions across all levels of care [39].
The impact of digital health adoption and innovation in Saudi Arabia is far-reaching, offering a model for how technology can be harnessed to improve healthcare systems [40]. As the kingdom continues to explore and integrate cutting-edge digital health technologies, it is setting new standards for healthcare excellence, not only within its borders but also as a benchmark for global healthcare innovation.
Through these initiatives, Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 is not just transforming healthcare infrastructure but is fundamentally reshaping the healthcare experience for patients and providers alike. The emphasis on digital health adoption and innovation is paving the way to a future where healthcare is more accessible, personalized, and effective, reflecting the Kingdom’s ambitious vision for a healthier tomorrow.

3.3. Healthcare Workforce Development

Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 has underscored the critical role of healthcare workforce development in achieving a transformative and sustainable healthcare system [2]. Recognizing the need for a skilled and well-equipped healthcare workforce, the kingdom has embarked on a comprehensive strategy focusing on education, training, and the recruitment of international talent [3]. This narrative explores the multifaceted approach to enhancing the capabilities and capacity of healthcare professionals within the kingdom.
The foundation of this strategy lies in the substantial investment in education and training programs for healthcare workers. By modernizing medical education curricula and incorporating cutting-edge technologies and methodologies, Saudi Arabia is preparing a new generation of healthcare professionals who are adept in both clinical excellence and digital healthcare solutions [41].
International collaboration plays a pivotal role in this development strategy, with partnerships established with leading institutions around the world to facilitate knowledge exchange, training, and research opportunities [42]. These collaborations are designed to bring world-class expertise to the kingdom, enriching the local healthcare workforce with international best practices and innovative care models [43].
To address specific gaps in the workforce, Saudi Arabia has also opened its doors to international healthcare professionals, creating a diverse and experienced workforce capable of meeting the healthcare needs of its population [44]. This strategic recruitment is complemented by policies aimed at integrating these professionals into the kingdom’s healthcare system, ensuring they contribute effectively to healthcare delivery [45].
The development of leadership and management skills among healthcare professionals is another key aspect of the workforce strategy [46]. Recognizing the importance of strong leadership in healthcare settings, dedicated programs are being developed to cultivate leadership skills, ensuring that healthcare facilities are managed efficiently and effectively [47].
Continuous professional development (CPD) is emphasized, with ongoing education and training opportunities for healthcare workers to keep abreast of the latest developments in their fields [48]. This commitment to lifelong learning ensures that the healthcare workforce remains competent, responsive, and innovative in practice.
Special attention is paid to the development of specialized skills, particularly in areas where the kingdom faces significant healthcare challenges, such as non-communicable diseases and geriatric care [49]. Specialized training programs are being expanded to build capacity in these critical areas, ensuring that the healthcare system can meet the evolving needs of the population [50].
Incentive structures and career progression pathways are being reformed to attract and retain talent within the healthcare sector. By providing clear and rewarding career paths, Saudi Arabia aims to motivate healthcare professionals to pursue excellence and innovation in their practice [51].
The focus on healthcare workforce development is a testament to Saudi Arabia’s holistic approach to healthcare transformation. By building a skilled, diverse, and motivated workforce, the kingdom is laying the foundation for a healthcare system that is capable of delivering high-quality, patient-centered care in alignment with the goals of Vision 2030.
Through these initiatives, Saudi Arabia is not only addressing the immediate needs of its healthcare system but is also preparing for the future, ensuring that its healthcare workforce is equipped to face the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

3.4. Public Health and Preventive Services

Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 has brought public health and preventive services into sharp focus, recognizing their critical role in building a healthy and resilient society. The kingdom’s proactive approach to public health is reshaping the way healthcare is delivered, emphasizing prevention over cure and community well-being over individual treatment [2,3]. This narrative describes the kingdom’s strategic efforts in enhancing public health infrastructure, promoting healthy lifestyles, and preventing diseases.
At the heart of this transformation is the drive to combat non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which pose significant challenges to the health of the population [52]. Vision 2030 introduces comprehensive screening and prevention programs aimed at the early detection and management of conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer [53,54]. These initiatives reflect a fundamental shift toward a preventive healthcare model, aiming to reduce the incidence and impact of chronic diseases across the kingdom.
Nutrition and physical activity have been identified as key pillars in the fight against NCDs. Nationwide campaigns and programs promoting healthy eating habits and regular exercise are being rolled out, targeting schools, workplaces, and communities [55]. These initiatives are not just about information dissemination. They involve creating supportive environments that encourage and facilitate healthy choices among the population.
Mental health, often overlooked in public health discussions, has gained prominence under Vision 2030 [56]. With the establishment of mental health services and awareness programs, Saudi Arabia is breaking the stigma associated with mental illness and providing support for those in need [57]. This holistic approach to health underscores the kingdom’s commitment to the well-being of its citizens, recognizing that mental health is as important as physical health.
Immunization programs have been expanded and strengthened, protecting the population against a range of infectious diseases [58]. By achieving high vaccination coverage, Saudi Arabia is not only safeguarding its citizens but also contributing to global health security efforts [59]. These immunization drives exemplify the kingdom’s proactive stance in preventing disease outbreaks and ensuring public health resilience [60].
Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 recognizes the intrinsic link between environmental health and public well-being, embarking on ambitious projects to mitigate pollution, enhance waste management, and safeguard natural resources [61]. Significant investments in green infrastructure aim to reduce air and water pollution, a critical step toward mitigating respiratory and waterborne diseases.
Vision 2030 emphasizes the adoption of renewable energy sources to lessen the environmental footprint of healthcare facilities, promoting sustainability in the health sector [2]. Initiatives to expand green spaces and urban greenery contribute not only to the aesthetic enhancement of cities but also to the mental and physical health of the community, recognizing the therapeutic benefits of nature [62]. The strategic move toward sustainable cities, with integrated environmental health policies, showcases a holistic approach to public health, blending urban development with environmental stewardship.
Incorporating advanced technologies for waste management and recycling processes, Saudi Arabia aims to minimize waste’s impact on health, reducing the prevalence of diseases linked to unsanitary conditions. Public awareness campaigns on environmental health risks and the importance of conservation efforts are pivotal, engaging the community in sustainable practices. These comprehensive environmental health initiatives, anchored in Vision 2030, illustrate Saudi Arabia’s forward-thinking approach to ensuring a healthy environment as a cornerstone of a robust public health system, setting a precedent for integrating environmental sustainability into healthcare planning and delivery.
Public health policies are being reformed to support these initiatives, with a focus on regulatory frameworks that promote health equity and access to preventive services [63]. These policies aim to ensure that all segments of the population, regardless of socioeconomic status, have access to the resources and services needed to lead healthy lives.
Community engagement and empowerment are central to the success of public health initiatives [64]. Vision 2030 emphasizes the importance of involving communities in the design and implementation of health programs, ensuring that initiatives are culturally appropriate and aligned with the needs of the population [65].
Digital health technologies are being leveraged to enhance public health services, from telehealth platforms providing remote access to health education and services to mobile apps for health monitoring and behavior change [66]. This digital transformation is making preventive services more accessible and personalized, driving engagement and participation in health programs.
The collaboration between government entities, the private sector, and international organizations is strengthening the public health ecosystem [67]. By pooling resources and expertise, Saudi Arabia is enhancing its capacity to address public health challenges and achieve its Vision 2030 goals.
Through these multifaceted efforts, Saudi Arabia is setting a new standard for public health and preventive services, aiming to create a society where health and well-being are prioritized and where every individual has the opportunity to lead a healthy life. This narrative of transformation and innovation in public health is a key chapter in the kingdom’s journey toward Vision 2030, illustrating a profound commitment to the health and prosperity of its citizens.

3.5. Healthcare Financing and Insurance

Under Vision 2030, Saudi Arabia’s approach to healthcare financing and insurance has undergone significant transformation, aiming to create a more sustainable, efficient, and inclusive healthcare system [68]. This section narrates the kingdom’s journey toward reshaping its healthcare financing landscape, emphasizing the pivotal changes and their impacts on the population.
The introduction of mandatory health insurance for all residents, including expatriates, marks a fundamental shift toward a more inclusive healthcare system [69]. This move ensures that a larger segment of the population has access to quality healthcare services without the burden of out-of-pocket expenses, reflecting a commitment to healthcare equity.
To support the expanding insurance framework, Saudi Arabia has been actively encouraging the growth of the private health insurance sector [70]. This includes implementing regulations that foster competition and innovation among insurance providers, ultimately benefiting consumers through better coverage options and services [71].
The government’s role in healthcare financing is evolving from a direct provider to a regulator and facilitator, guiding the private sector’s involvement in healthcare provision [72]. This strategic shift aims to enhance the quality of healthcare services while ensuring their financial sustainability through efficient resource allocation and investment.
Public–private partnerships (PPPs) have emerged as a key mechanism for financing healthcare infrastructure projects and services [73]. These collaborations leverage private sector expertise and resources for the development of hospitals, clinics, and digital health platforms, contributing to the overall improvement of the healthcare system.
Innovative financing models, such as value-based care, are being explored to align payment mechanisms with patient outcomes rather than services rendered [74]. This approach incentivizes healthcare providers to focus on quality and efficiency, leading to better health outcomes and cost savings.
The kingdom has also invested in digital technologies to streamline healthcare financing processes, including billing, insurance claims, and payment systems. These technologies enhance transparency, reduce administrative costs, and improve the overall efficiency of healthcare financing.
Efforts to increase the efficiency of healthcare spending include the adoption of health technology assessment (HTA) processes to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of medical technologies and interventions [75]. This ensures that investments in healthcare are evidence-based and aligned with the needs of the population.
Education and awareness campaigns are being conducted to inform citizens and residents about their health insurance rights and options, empowering them to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare coverage [76].
As Saudi Arabia continues to refine its healthcare financing and insurance systems, the focus remains on creating a sustainable model that supports the kingdom’s ambitious healthcare transformation goals. Through these comprehensive efforts, the vision of a more accessible, efficient, and high-quality healthcare system under Vision 2030 becomes increasingly tangible, illustrating the kingdom’s commitment to the well-being of its population [2].
This narrative of healthcare financing and insurance reform is a testament to Saudi Arabia’s proactive and strategic approach to ensuring the long-term viability and resilience of its healthcare system, marking a significant milestone in the kingdom’s journey toward healthcare excellence.

3.6. Regulatory and Policy Framework

The evolution of the regulatory and policy framework in Saudi Arabia under Vision 2030 is a compelling narrative of strategic reform aimed at enhancing healthcare outcomes and accessibility [77]. This transformative journey is marked by the adoption of policies designed to support the ambitious goals of healthcare transformation, ensuring alignment with international standards and best practices.
Foremost among these reforms is the establishment of a robust regulatory framework for the healthcare sector, focusing on quality assurance, patient safety, and ethical practices [78]. This framework sets the foundation for a healthcare system that prioritizes the well-being and rights of patients, ensuring that healthcare providers adhere to the highest standards of care.
The introduction of policies to foster innovation and research within the healthcare sector is a testament to the kingdom’s commitment to advancing medical science and technology [79]. These policies are designed to encourage the development of innovative healthcare solutions, enhancing the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.
A significant amount of attention has been paid to digital health regulations, ensuring the secure and ethical use of technology in healthcare [80]. These regulations address data privacy, cybersecurity, and the use of AI, laying the groundwork for a digital healthcare ecosystem that is both innovative and trustworthy.
The policy framework also emphasizes the importance of public–private partnerships in achieving the objectives of Vision 2030 [81]. By clarifying the roles and responsibilities of both sectors, these policies facilitate collaboration and investment in healthcare projects, driving improvements in healthcare infrastructure and service delivery.
Healthcare financing reforms have been introduced to ensure the sustainability of the healthcare system [82]. These reforms aim to optimize resource allocation, enhance the efficiency of healthcare spending, and expand health insurance coverage, contributing to a more equitable healthcare system.
Policies promoting workforce development are crucial to the success of healthcare transformation [83]. By setting standards for education, training, and continuous professional development, these policies ensure that the healthcare workforce is equipped with the skills and knowledge required to meet the demands of a modern healthcare system.
The regulatory and policy framework extends to pharmaceuticals and medical devices, with stringent regulations in place to ensure the safety, efficacy, and quality of these products [84,85]. This not only protects public health but also fosters a competitive and innovative market for healthcare products.
The engagement of stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, patients, and the public, in the policy-making process is a hallmark of the kingdom’s approach [86]. This inclusive strategy ensures that policies are well-informed, responsive to the needs of the community, and capable of addressing the challenges of healthcare transformation.
As Saudi Arabia continues to refine its regulatory and policy framework, the vision of a healthcare system characterized by excellence, innovation, and accessibility comes into sharper focus. These regulatory and policy reforms are paving the way to a healthcare future that is in tune with the needs and aspirations of the Saudi population, highlighting the kingdom’s proactive and thoughtful approach to healthcare transformation under Vision 2030.

3.7. Quality of Care and Patient Safety

Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 has placed a strong emphasis on enhancing the quality of care and patient safety across its healthcare system, reflecting a commitment to achieving global standards in healthcare services [86]. This focus has led to the implementation of comprehensive quality assurance programs, the establishment of rigorous patient safety protocols, and the adoption of international best practices tailored to the kingdom’s unique healthcare context.
Central to this endeavor is the development and enforcement of healthcare quality standards [87]. These standards are not mere guidelines but are enforced through regular inspections, accreditations, and continuous monitoring, ensuring that healthcare facilities consistently meet or exceed them [88]. This systematic approach to quality assurance is elevating the overall standard of care provided to patients throughout the kingdom.
Patient safety has been prioritized, with initiatives designed to minimize the risk of medical errors and adverse events [89]. These include the adoption of electronic health records to improve the accuracy of patient information, the implementation of evidence-based clinical protocols, and the promotion of a culture of safety among healthcare professionals [90].
Training and education programs for healthcare workers have been expanded to include modules on patient safety and quality care [91]. These programs aim to equip healthcare professionals with the knowledge and skills necessary to deliver high-quality care and to foster an environment where patient safety is paramount [92].
The introduction of patient-centered care models is transforming the patient experience in Saudi Arabia [93]. By involving patients in their own care decisions and focusing on their needs and preferences, healthcare providers are improving satisfaction and outcomes, further enhancing the quality of care.
Feedback mechanisms, including patient surveys and complaint systems, have been established to gather insights from patients and their families [94]. This feedback is invaluable for identifying areas for improvement and for developing strategies to enhance the quality of care and patient safety.
The Saudi government has also invested in healthcare technology and innovation as key drivers of quality improvement [95]. From advanced diagnostic tools to telemedicine services, these technological advancements are making healthcare more accessible, efficient, and effective [96].
Collaboration with international healthcare organizations and experts is another strategy Saudi Arabia employs to improve quality and safety [97,98]. By learning from international best practices and adapting them to the local context, the kingdom is continuously enhancing its healthcare services.
Public awareness campaigns on the importance of quality care and patient safety are part of the broader effort to engage the community in healthcare improvement initiatives. These campaigns empower patients with information on their rights and on how to access the best possible care [99].
As Vision 2030 progresses, the relentless focus on quality of care and patient safety is setting new benchmarks for healthcare in Saudi Arabia. These efforts not only improve the health outcomes for the population but also position the kingdom as a model for healthcare transformation on the global stage. Through continuous improvement and innovation, Saudi Arabia is creating a healthcare system that is safe, efficient, and responsive to the needs of its citizens.

3.8. Access to Healthcare

Vision 2030 has significantly advanced access to healthcare, ensuring that comprehensive, high-quality services reach every corner of the kingdom. This commitment is demonstrated through the strategic expansion of healthcare infrastructure, the integration of digital health services, and targeted initiatives to reach underserved populations.
The geographical distribution of healthcare facilities has been carefully planned to eliminate access disparities, with a particular focus on rural and remote areas [3]. This has been complemented by mobile clinics and telemedicine services, bridging the distance in order to bring healthcare closer to those in need [45,66,100].
The implementation of universal health coverage under Vision 2030 is a monumental step toward equitable healthcare access [101]. By expanding insurance coverage and reforming healthcare financing, the kingdom ensures that financial barriers do not prevent individuals from receiving the care they need.
Efforts to improve healthcare access also extend to specialized care, with the development of centers of excellence and the introduction of specialized services in community hospitals [102]. This ensures that advanced healthcare services are more widely available, reducing the need for travel to major cities for specialized treatment.
Digital health initiatives play a pivotal role in enhancing access. Through the use of telehealth platforms, e-prescriptions, and online appointment systems, patients can easily access healthcare services and information, making healthcare more accessible and convenient [55,63,101].
The focus on preventive healthcare and public health initiatives aims to improve the overall health of the population, reducing the demand for healthcare services and making it easier for individuals to access the care they need when they need it [102].
Community engagement and health education campaigns have been instrumental in raising awareness about available healthcare services and how to access them. These campaigns empower individuals to take charge of their health, promoting the use of preventive services and early intervention [103].
The regulatory and policy framework supporting healthcare access ensures that all initiatives and services are aligned with the goal of universal healthcare access [2,104]. This framework also encourages innovation and investment in healthcare, further expanding access to services.
Ongoing assessments and feedback mechanisms are in place to monitor healthcare access, identify gaps, and implement targeted interventions to address them [2]. This dynamic approach ensures that the healthcare system remains responsive to the needs of the population.
As Vision 2030 progresses, the kingdom’s efforts to improve healthcare access are creating a more inclusive, efficient, and patient-centered healthcare system. Through strategic investments, policy reforms, and innovative solutions, Saudi Arabia is making significant strides toward ensuring that every citizen and resident has access to the healthcare services they need, marking a new era of healthcare accessibility in the kingdom.

4. Discussion

Vision 2030 has set the stage for a transformative era in Saudi Arabia’s healthcare sector, aiming to overhaul infrastructure, integrate digital health solutions, develop the healthcare workforce, enhance public health services, reform healthcare financing and insurance, update regulatory frameworks, and improve quality of care and patient safety [1,2,3,18,28,44,55,56,57,58,78]. These ambitious objectives reflect a commitment to elevate the kingdom’s healthcare system to global standards of excellence and accessibility.
The strategic expansion of healthcare infrastructure under Vision 2030 has not only increased the physical capacity of the healthcare system but also ensured that advancements in healthcare facilities are evenly distributed, addressing historical disparities in access to care [2]. This aligns with global trends, where the expansion of healthcare infrastructure is closely tied to improved health outcomes and economic growth [104,105,106,107].
Central to Vision 2030’s transformative blueprint is the integration of sustainability within the healthcare sector, manifesting in initiatives designed to minimize the environmental impact while enhancing healthcare delivery. The incorporation of green building principles in new healthcare facilities underscores a commitment to reducing carbon footprints and promoting energy efficiency. Moreover, the emphasis on renewable energy sources and sustainable waste management practices within healthcare settings illustrates a holistic approach toward environmental stewardship. These efforts not only align with global sustainability goals but also ensure that the healthcare transformation under Vision 2030 contributes to a healthier planet, affirming the intrinsic link between environmental health and public well-being [62].
In analyzing the transformative impact of Vision 2030 on Saudi Arabia’s healthcare sector, it is crucial to ground theoretical assessments in empirical evidence. While our discussion has highlighted substantial strides in infrastructure expansion, digital health integration, and public health service enhancements, the true measure of these advancements lies in their quantifiable impact on the population’s health. Indicators such as morbidity and mortality rates, patient treatment volumes, referral frequencies, and satisfaction metrics across both national and expatriate patient demographics serve as vital barometers for evaluating healthcare service upgrades [67,68,69,70]. For instance, a significant reduction in mortality rates for chronic conditions or an increase in patient throughput in newly established facilities would substantiate Vision 2030’s effectiveness. Acknowledging areas where data may reveal gaps or shortcomings in the previous system not only provides a balanced view but also underscores areas for ongoing improvement. Such data-driven insights offer a more comprehensive understanding, allowing for a nuanced appreciation of Vision 2030’s contributions toward elevating the healthcare landscape in Saudi Arabia.
The expansion of healthcare infrastructure in Saudi Arabia, while monumental, is part of a broader narrative observed globally. Countries like Singapore and Denmark have similarly embarked on extensive healthcare infrastructure development, focusing on both urban and rural access [108,109]. Saudi Arabia’s unique challenge, given its vast geography and diverse population, underscores the necessity of tailored approaches to infrastructure development [110]. This comparative perspective highlights the kingdom’s strategic alignment with international best practices while navigating its unique challenges.
Digital health adoption and innovation in Saudi Arabia represents a paradigm shift toward a more efficient and patient-centered healthcare delivery model. The kingdom’s success in integrating telemedicine, EHRs, and AI into healthcare services offers valuable lessons on the potential of digital health to transform patient care, echoing findings from other nations that have embarked on similar digital health initiatives [28,33,35].
The integration of digital health technologies in Saudi Arabia opens avenues for international collaboration, particularly in sharing innovations and best practices. For instance, partnerships with countries leading in digital health, such as Estonia, could further enhance the kingdom’s telemedicine and AI capabilities [111]. These collaborations not only accelerate the adoption of proven solutions but also foster the global exchange of knowledge, emphasizing the interconnected nature of healthcare innovation in the digital age.
In furtherance of our analysis, it is crucial to underscore the concrete outcomes of Vision 2030’s healthcare initiatives through empirical data. Recent studies and health reports have begun to illuminate the tangible benefits of these reforms, showing notable advancements in healthcare metrics [112,113,114]. For instance, a reduction in mortality rates for chronic diseases and an uptick in patient satisfaction scores provide quantifiable evidence of the plan’s success [115]. Moreover, the expansion of primary care facilities has notably increased access to healthcare services, particularly for underserved populations [116,117]. Such empirical findings not only affirm the positive trajectory of the healthcare transformation under Vision 2030 but also highlight areas requiring further enhancement.
Acknowledging the dual experiences of national and expatriate patients adds a layer of depth to our understanding of Vision 2030’s impact. While advancements have been significant, disparities in healthcare access and quality persist, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts to bridge these gaps. Addressing these shortcomings, especially in the domains of mental health services and chronic disease management, remains imperative for realizing the full spectrum of Vision 2030’s healthcare goals. By integrating these empirical insights, our review not only bolsters the credibility of the theoretical assessments presented but also provides a comprehensive overview of the healthcare transformation journey in Saudi Arabia.
In enhancing our discourse on Vision 2030’s healthcare reforms, it is pivotal to recognize the substantial strides made, particularly in the digital health sector. The integration of telemedicine and electronic health records exemplifies a significant leap toward modernized patient care and efficient health data management [118]. These innovations have markedly improved healthcare delivery, especially in remote and underserved areas, underscoring a steadfast commitment to universal healthcare coverage. Despite these achievements, the persistence of disparities in healthcare quality and access, notably in mental health and chronic disease management, calls for continuous efforts to address these challenges. It is imperative that future initiatives not only focus on bridging these gaps but also on enhancing the overall healthcare ecosystem [119]. This broader perspective not only validates the theoretical analysis presented but also charts a course for future improvements in Saudi Arabia’s healthcare system under Vision 2030, offering a comprehensive narrative of transformation and resilience in the face of evolving healthcare needs.
Vision 2030’s commitment to environmental health marks a pivotal aspect of Saudi Arabia’s holistic healthcare transformation. Recognizing the profound connection between the environment and public health, the initiative prioritizes sustainable practices across the healthcare sector [120]. This includes adopting green building standards for healthcare facilities, implementing waste reduction and recycling programs, and promoting urban green spaces to improve air quality [121]. These efforts are aimed not only at preventing environmental health risks but also at fostering a sustainable ecosystem that supports overall public well-being. Such integrative measures underscore Vision 2030’s forward-thinking approach to ensuring a healthier future, demonstrating an alignment with international environmental health standards and practices.
Workforce development initiatives highlight the importance of investing in human capital to sustain healthcare advancements. The emphasis on education, training, and international recruitment mirrors the global understanding that a skilled healthcare workforce is essential for delivering high-quality care and innovating healthcare practices [122].
As Saudi Arabia focuses on developing its healthcare workforce, it mirrors a global trend where continuous education and adaptation to technological advancements become paramount. The evolving healthcare landscape necessitates a workforce that is not only clinically skilled but also adept in digital health competencies [123]. This global shift toward a more dynamic healthcare education model underscores the importance of lifelong learning and adaptability among healthcare professionals, ensuring they remain at the forefront of medical and technological advancements [124].
Public health and preventive services have been significantly bolstered, reflecting a shift toward a more holistic approach to health that prioritizes prevention over treatment [115]. This approach is in line with global public health strategies that emphasize the cost-effectiveness and societal benefits of preventive care [125].
The emphasis on public health and preventive services in Vision 2030 positions Saudi Arabia to better prepare for future health crises, drawing lessons from the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic [118]. The development of robust public health infrastructure and emergency preparedness plans is a shared priority worldwide, highlighting the importance of resilience in healthcare systems. Saudi Arabia’s proactive approach not only strengthens its own public health capabilities but also contributes to global health security [126,127].
Reforms in healthcare financing and insurance in Saudi Arabia are critical steps toward ensuring the sustainability and equity of healthcare services [17,87]. The move toward universal health coverage and the encouragement of private sector participation are trends observed worldwide as countries strive to make healthcare more accessible and affordable [128].
The sustainability of healthcare reforms under Vision 2030 is a critical consideration, paralleling global concerns about the environmental, economic, and social impacts of healthcare transformation [2,129]. Balancing the advancement of healthcare services with sustainability principles is a challenge faced by nations worldwide. Saudi Arabia’s efforts to incorporate sustainable practices in healthcare delivery reflect a growing recognition of the need for healthcare systems to be environmentally responsible and economically viable [3].
The regulatory and policy framework reforms underscore the kingdom’s commitment to creating a conducive environment for healthcare transformation [130]. This mirrors global efforts where regulatory agility and policy support are recognized as key enablers of healthcare innovation and quality improvement.
The ethical dimensions of digital health, particularly regarding data privacy and security, are critical to the success of Vision 2030’s healthcare transformation. Saudi Arabia’s focus on establishing robust digital health regulations mirrors global efforts to navigate these ethical challenges [131]. The kingdom’s approach to safeguarding patient data and ensuring ethical AI use sets a precedent for responsible digital health innovation, contributing to the ongoing global discourse on ethical standards in healthcare technology [132].
The focus on quality of care and patient safety is a testament to Saudi Arabia’s dedication to achieving the highest standards in healthcare services. The implementation of quality assurance measures and patient safety protocols is aligned with international efforts to improve healthcare outcomes and patient experiences [133].
Culturally sensitive healthcare delivery is pivotal in Saudi Arabia’s diverse society, reflecting a global trend toward more inclusive and respectful healthcare services. The incorporation of cultural considerations into healthcare delivery under Vision 2030 recognizes the unique needs and preferences of its population [134]. This commitment to cultural sensitivity in patient care enhances the effectiveness of healthcare services and patient satisfaction, offering a model for other culturally diverse nations.
Access to healthcare has been significantly enhanced through Vision 2030’s initiatives, ensuring that all residents of Saudi Arabia, regardless of their geographic location or socioeconomic status, have access to quality healthcare services [135]. This is reflective of a global movement toward healthcare equity, where access to care is increasingly viewed as a fundamental right.
Saudi Arabia’s role in global health diplomacy, underscored by its Vision 2030 reforms, positions the kingdom as a key player in international health initiatives [136]. The kingdom’s contributions to global health security and cooperation highlight the importance of cross-border collaboration in addressing common health challenges. Saudi Arabia’s engagement in global health diplomacy not only enhances its own healthcare system but also contributes to building a more resilient and cooperative global health community [137].
Despite the significant strides made under Vision 2030, it is imperative to recognize existing gaps within the current healthcare system. Areas such as mental health services, chronic disease management, and healthcare accessibility in remote regions remain underdeveloped, indicating the necessity for ongoing efforts to broaden the scope of healthcare reforms [138,139,140,141,142]. Addressing these gaps requires not only the expansion of services but also a concerted effort to integrate innovative healthcare models and technology-driven solutions that cater to the diverse needs of the Saudi population.
Recommendations for future improvement include enhancing patient-centered care through telehealth and mobile health solutions, focusing on preventative care to reduce the burden of chronic diseases, and implementing targeted strategies to improve healthcare delivery in underserved areas. Additionally, fostering partnerships with international healthcare leaders can offer valuable insights and technologies that accelerate the kingdom’s healthcare transformation [143]. By focusing on these areas, Saudi Arabia can further advance its healthcare system, ensuring that it not only meets but exceeds the objectives set forth by Vision 2030, fostering a healthier future for all of its residents.
As Saudi Arabia continues to navigate its ambitious Vision 2030 healthcare transformation, it stands as both a beneficiary of and contributor to the global discourse on healthcare innovation and reform. The lessons learned from the kingdom’s experience can offer valuable insights to other nations pursuing similar healthcare objectives, emphasizing the importance of strategic planning, investment in technology and human resources, and the creation of a supportive regulatory environment.
The ongoing evolution of Saudi Arabia’s healthcare system under Vision 2030 highlights the dynamic interplay between ambition, innovation, and a commitment to public well-being. As the kingdom advances toward its goals, it not only reshapes its own healthcare landscape but also contributes to the global pursuit of more accessible, efficient, and high-quality healthcare for all.
Looking beyond 2030, Saudi Arabia’s foundational changes in healthcare set the stage for ongoing innovation and reform. The kingdom’s vision for a future where healthcare is universally accessible, technologically advanced, and of the highest quality reflects a commitment to continuous improvement and adaptation. As Saudi Arabia advances on its transformative journey, it not only reshapes its healthcare landscape but also contributes to the global quest for sustainable, efficient, and equitable healthcare.

5. Limitations

This rapid review, while comprehensive, operates within certain limitations inherent to its methodology and scope. Firstly, the reliance on published, English-language peer-reviewed articles may omit relevant insights from unpublished studies, grey literature, or research published in other languages, potentially biasing our understanding of Vision 2030’s full impact. Additionally, the rapid review format, aimed at swiftly synthesizing existing research, may not capture the depth of primary research or the subtleties of longitudinal studies, which could offer more nuanced insights into the evolving healthcare landscape in Saudi Arabia.
Given the vast scope of Vision 2030, certain areas of healthcare transformation, such as specific patient outcomes or the long-term sustainability of reforms, were beyond the review’s immediate focus. This limitation underscores the need for ongoing research to fill these gaps and provide a more detailed picture of the reforms’ effects over time.
Moreover, the review’s focus on literature from 2010 to 2023 prioritizes recent developments but may overlook the historical context or foundational work preceding Vision 2030 that could inform a deeper understanding of the current changes.
Lastly, while the review endeavors to draw comparisons with global healthcare transformation efforts, the unique socio-political and economic context of Saudi Arabia means these parallels may not fully capture the distinct challenges and opportunities faced by the kingdom.
Acknowledging these limitations is crucial for a balanced interpretation of the findings and for guiding future research directions. Continuous, detailed studies are essential to comprehensively evaluate Vision 2030’s long-term impact on Saudi Arabia’s healthcare system and its implications for global healthcare policy and practice.

6. Conclusions

The journey of Saudi Arabia’s healthcare transformation under Vision 2030 exemplifies an unprecedented shift toward excellence, innovation, and accessibility. Through a meticulous examination, this review unveiled how the kingdom’s ambitious goals are being met with strategic actions that embrace global healthcare trends while addressing unique challenges, including those posed by environmental considerations and the need for sustainable practices within healthcare delivery.
Significant expansions in infrastructure, digital health, and public health initiatives underscore a pivotal advancement toward an inclusive, efficient, and patient-centered healthcare system. This review highlighted the kingdom’s strategic alignment with global healthcare movements, particularly in the realms of digital health and environmental health, showcasing a proactive approach to future healthcare demands. By integrating empirical data, this analysis provides a clearer understanding of the tangible outcomes achieved thus far, affirming Vision 2030’s role in significantly elevating the healthcare landscape in Saudi Arabia.
Comparisons with international benchmarks revealed Saudi Arabia’s contributions to and learnings from the global discourse on healthcare innovation, particularly in sustainability and digital health integration. The kingdom’s journey, enriched by lessons learned and a commitment to continuous improvement, positions it as a model for holistic healthcare transformation globally.
As Saudi Arabia progresses along the ambitious pathway laid out by Vision 2030, it not only reshapes its healthcare landscape but also sets a precedent for sustainable, equitable, and high-quality healthcare worldwide. The foundation established by Vision 2030’s initiatives promises a future where the kingdom’s healthcare is not only universally accessible and technologically advanced but also characterized by its resilience and sustainability. This transformative journey is a testament to visionary leadership, strategic planning, and an unwavering pursuit of excellence, marking a new era in healthcare both within the kingdom and across the global healthcare community.

Author Contributions

Z.A.M. provided the main framework, identified and organized primary materials, and collaborated in writing the manuscript. K.G. identified appropriate references and collaborated on the writing and editing of the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


The authors extend their appreciation to the Deputyship for Research and Innovation of the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through the project number ISP-2398.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


  1. Khan, M.U. Saudi Arabia’s vision 2030. Def. J. 2016, 19, 36. [Google Scholar]
  2. Saudi Vision 2030. Available online: (accessed on 27 February 2024).
  3. Nurunnabi, M. Transformation from an oil-based economy to a knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia: The direction of Saudi vision 2030. J. Knowl. Econ. 2017, 8, 536–564. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Okma, K.G.; Cheng, T.M.; Chinitz, D.; Crivelli, L.; Lim, M.K.; Maarse, H.; Labra, M.E. Six countries, six health reform models? Health care reform in Chile, Israel, Singapore, Switzerland, Taiwan and The Netherlands. In Policy Sectors in Comparative Policy Analysis Studies; Routledge: London, UK, 2020; pp. 60–98. [Google Scholar]
  5. Alasiri, A.A.; Mohammed, V. Healthcare transformation in Saudi Arabia: An overview since the launch of vision 2030. Health Serv. Insights 2022, 15, 11786329221121214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Rahman, R.; Qattan, A. Vision 2030 and sustainable development: State capacity to revitalize the healthcare system in Saudi Arabia. Inq. J. Health Care Organ. Provis. Financ. 2021, 58, 0046958020984682. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Alkhamis, A.; Miraj, S.A. Access to health care in Saudi Arabia: Development in the context of vision 2030. In Handbook of Healthcare in the Arab World; Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland, 2021; pp. 1629–1660. [Google Scholar]
  8. Rahman, R.; Al-Borie, H.M. Strengthening the Saudi Arabian healthcare system: Role of Vision 2030. Int. J. Health Manag. 2021, 14, 1483–1491. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Alharbi, M.F. An analysis of the Saudi health-care system’s readiness to change in the context of the Saudi National Health-care Plan in Vision 2030. Int. J. Health Sci. 2018, 12, 83–87. [Google Scholar]
  10. Moher, D.; Liberati, A.; Tetzlaff, J.; Altman, D.G.; Prisma Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009, 6, e1000097. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  11. Aboalshamat, K.; Alhuzali, R.; Alalyani, A.; Alsharif, S.; Qadhi, H.; Almatrafi, R.; Ammash, D.; Alotaibi, S. Medical and dental professionals readiness for artificial intelligence for Saudi Arabia vision 2030. Int. J. Pharm. Res. Allied Sci. 2022, 11, 52–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  12. Chowdhury, S.; Mok, D.; Leenen, L. Transformation of health care and the new model of care in Saudi Arabia: Kingdom’s Vision 2030. J. Med. Life 2021, 14, 347–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Alghamdi, S.M.; Alqahtani, J.S.; Aldhahir, A.M. Current status of telehealth in Saudi Arabia during COVID-19. J. Fam. Community Med. 2020, 27, 208–211. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  14. Albahli, S.; Khan, R.U.; Qamar, A.M. A blockchain-based architecture for smart healthcare system: A case study of Saudi Arabia. Adv. Sci. Technol. Eng. Syst. 2020, 5, 40–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  15. ElGibreen, H. Chapter 5: Health transformation in Saudi Arabia via connected health technologies. In Technology and Global Public Health; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2020; pp. 83–99. [Google Scholar]
  16. Al-Anezi, F.M.; Alrajhi, S.; Al-Anezi, N.M.; Alabbadi, D.M.; Almana, R. A review of healthcare system in Saudi Arabia. In 2020 19th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Applications for Business Engineering and Science (DCABES); IEEE: Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2020; pp. 318–322. [Google Scholar]
  17. Elsheikh, A.S.; Alqurashi, A.M.; Wahba, M.A.; Hodhod, T.E. Healthcare workforce in Saudi Arabia under Saudi vision 2030. J. Health Inform. Dev. Ctries. 2018, 12. [Google Scholar]
  18. Balharith, M.; Alghalyini, B.; Al-Mansour, K.; Tantawy, M.H.; Alonezi, M.A.; Almasud, A.; Zaidi, A.R.Z. Physical accessibility, availability, financial affordability, and acceptability of mobile health clinics in remote areas of Saudi Arabia. J. Fam. Med. Prim. Care 2023, 12, 1947–1956. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Tash, A.A.; Al-Bawardy, R.F. Cardiovascular Disease in Saudi Arabia: Facts and the way forward. J. Saudi Heart Assoc. 2023, 35, 148–162. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Alessy, S.A.; Almotlak, A.A.; Alattas, M.; Alshareef, A.; Alwosaibai, K.; Alghamdi, M.A.; Razack, H.I.; Alqahtani, S.A. Cancer Research Challenges and Potential Solutions in Saudi Arabia: A Qualitative Discussion Group Study. JCO Glob. Oncol. 2024, 10, e2300189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Al-Subaie, A.S.; Al-Habeeb, A.; Altwaijri, Y.A. Overview of the Saudi national mental health survey. Int. J. Methods Psychiatr. Res. 2020, 29, e1835. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Al-Kahlan, T.B.; Khasawneh, M.A. The Role of Scientific Research in Achieving Sustainable Development According to the Kingdom’s Vision 2030. J. Southwest Jiaotong Univ. 2023, 58. [Google Scholar]
  23. Moshashai, D.; Leber, A.M.; Savage, J.D. Saudi Arabia plans for its economic future: Vision 2030, the National Transformation Plan and Saudi fiscal reform. Br. J. Middle East. Stud. 2018, 47, 381–401. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  24. Al Surf, M.S.; Mostafa, L.A. Will the Saudi’s 2030 vision raise the public awareness of sustainable practices? Procedia Environ. Sci. 2017, 37, 514–527. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Aboneama, W.A. Creating a unique sustainable rating system for Saudi Arabia to achieve environmental assessment and 2030 vision. Eur. J. Sustain. Dev. 2018, 7, 269–279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Al-Wathinani, A.M.; Barten, D.G.; Borowska-Stefańska, M.; Gołda, P.; AlDulijan, N.A.; Alhallaf, M.A.; Samarkandi, L.O.; Almuhaidly, A.S.; Goniewicz, M.; Samarkandi, W.O.; et al. Driving Sustainable Disaster Risk Reduction: A Rapid Review of the Policies and Strategies in Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2023, 15, 10976. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Mani, Z.A.; Sultan, M.A.S.; Plummer, V.; Goniewicz, K. Navigating Interoperability in Disaster Management: Insights of Current Trends and Challenges in Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Disaster Risk Sci. 2023, 14, 873–885. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Noor, A. The utilization of e-health in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol. 2019, 6, 11. [Google Scholar]
  29. Alghamdi, S.M.; Alsulayyim, A.S.; Alqahtani, J.S.; Aldhahir, A.M. Digital Health Platforms in Saudi Arabia: Determinants from the COVID-19 Pandemic Experience. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1517. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Dawood, S.; Dawood, A.; Alaskar, H.; Saba, T. COVID-19 artificial intelligence based surveillance applications in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In 2021 1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics (CAIDA); IEEE: Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2021; pp. 200–205. [Google Scholar]
  31. Alaboudi, A.; Atkins, A.; Sharp, B.; Balkhair, A.; Alzahrani, M.; Sunbul, T. Barriers and challenges in adopting Saudi telemedicine network: The perceptions of decision makers of healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia. J. Infect. Public Health 2016, 9, 725–733. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. Alshammari, M. Electronic-health in Saudi Arabia: A review. Int. J. Adv. Appl. Sci. 2021, 8, 9942873. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Alghamdi, S.A.; Alashban, Y. Medical science students’ attitudes and perceptions of artificial intelligence in healthcare: A national study conducted in Saudi Arabia. J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci. 2024, 17, 100815. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Hassounah, M.; Raheel, H.; Alhefzi, M. Digital response During the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. J. Med. Internet Res. 2020, 22, e19338. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. Alhalafi, N.; Veeraraghavan, P. Cybersecurity policy framework in Saudi Arabia: Literature review. Front. Comput. Sci. 2021, 3, 736874. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Khan, A.; Alahmari, A.; Almuzaini, Y.; Alturki, N.; Aburas, A.; Alamri, F.A.; Albagami, M.; Alzaid, M.; Alharbi, T.; Alomar, R.; et al. The Role of Digital Technology in Responding to COVID-19 Pandemic: Saudi Arabia’s Experience. Risk Manag. Health Policy 2021, 14, 3923–3934. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Alsyouf, A. Mobile Health for COVID-19 pandemic surveillance in developing countries: The case of Saudi Arabia. Solid State Technol. 2020, 63, 2474–2485. [Google Scholar]
  38. Alsolamy, M.Q. Startups in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Opportunities. Int. J. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci. 2023, 12, 118–126. [Google Scholar]
  39. Alnowibet, K.; Abduljabbar, A.; Ahmad, S.; Alqasem, L.; Alrajeh, N.; Guiso, L.; Zaindin, M.; Varanasi, M. Healthcare human resources: Trends and demand in Saudi Arabia. Healthcare 2021, 9, 955. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Al Khashan, H.; Abogazalah, F.; Alomary, S.; Nahhas, M.; Alwadey, A.; Al-Khudhair, B.; Alamri, F.; Aleisa, N.; Mahmoud, N.; Hassanein, M. Primary health care reform in Saudi Arabia: Progress, challenges and prospects. East. Mediterr. Health J. 2021, 27, 1016–1026. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Alodhayani, A.A.; Hassounah, M.M.; Qadri, F.R.; Abouammoh, N.A.; Ahmed, Z.; Aldahmash, A.M. Culture-specific observations in a Saudi Arabian digital home health care program: Focus group discussions with patients and their caregivers. J. Med. Internet Res. 2021, 23, e26002. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Boettiger, D.C.; Lin, T.K.; Almansour, M.; Hamza, M.M.; Alsukait, R.; Herbst, C.H.; Altheyab, N.; Afghani, A.; Kattan, F. Projected impact of population aging on non-communicable disease burden and costs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2020–2030. BMC Health Serv. Res. 2023, 23, 1381. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Algahtani, H.; Shirah, B.; Bukhari, H.; Alkhamisi, H.; Ibrahim, B.; Subahi, A.; Aldarmahi, A. Perceptions and attitudes of different healthcare professionals and students toward interprofessional education in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional survey. J. Interprof. Care 2021, 35, 476–481. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Sajjad, R.; Qureshi, M.O. An assessment of the healthcare services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An analysis of the old, current, and future systems. Int. J. Health Manag. 2020, 13, 109–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  45. Al-Hanawi, M.K.; Khan, S.A.; Al-Borie, H.M. Healthcare human resource development in Saudi Arabia: Emerging challenges and opportunities—A critical review. Public Health Rev. 2019, 40, 16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Al Asmri, M.; Almalki, M.; Fitzgerald, G.; Clark, M. The public health care system and primary care services in Saudi Arabia: A system in transition. East. Mediterr. Health J. 2020, 26, 468–476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Goniewicz, K.; Burkle, F.M.; Hall, T.F.; Goniewicz, M.; Khorram-Manesh, A. Global public health leadership: The vital element in managing global health crises. J. Glob. Health 2022, 12, 03003. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. Khorram-Manesh, A.; Goniewicz, K.; Burkle, F.M., Jr. Unleashing the global potential of public health: A framework for future pandemic response. J. Infect. Public Health 2024, 17, 82–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. Alzahrani, F.Y.; Althaqafi, A.S. EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Online Professional Development in Higher Education in Saudi Arabia. High. Educ. Stud. 2020, 10, 121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Alsuwaidan, A.; Almedlej, N.; Alsabti, S.; Daftardar, O.; Al Deaji, F.; Al Amri, A.; Alsuwaidan, S. A Comprehensive overview of polypharmacy in elderly patients in Saudi Arabia. Geriatrics 2019, 4, 36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. Beshyah, S.A.; Hafidh, K.; Abdulrahman, H.; Hammami, S.O. Perceptions of geriatric medicine and care of the elderly: An exploratory survey of physicians from the middle east and Africa. Adv. Biomed. Res. 2022, 14, 012. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. AlRuthia, Y.; Bin Aydan, N.A.; Alorf, N.S.; Asiri, Y. How can Saudi Arabia reform its public hospital payment models? A narrative review. Saudi Pharm. J. 2020, 28, 1520–1525. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. Al Rumayyan, A.; Alharthi, A.; Al-Rowaili, M.; Al-Mehmadi, S.; Altwaijri, W.; Alrifai, T.; Badri, M. The prevalence of active epilepsy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. Neuroepidemiology 2023, 57, 78–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Al-Hanawi, M.K. Socioeconomic determinants and inequalities in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Equity Health 2021, 20, 1–3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Al Sawar, M.S.; Alswar, M.A.; Al Alhareth, M.S.; Alyami, A.M.; ALAlhareth, M.Z.; Alshogeah, M.A.; Alzubaidi, A.M.; Alzubaidi, A.M. Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases in Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review. Adv. Clin. Exp. Med. 2022, 9. [Google Scholar]
  56. Rakha, A.H.; Albahadel, D.M.; Saleh, H.A. Developing an active lifestyle for children considering the Saudi vision 2030: The family’s point of view. PLoS ONE 2022, 17, e0275109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Albejaidi, F.; Nair, K.S. Building the health workforce: Saudi Arabia’s challenges in achieving Vision 2030. Int. J. Health Plan. Manag. 2019, 34, e1405-16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. Mirza, A.A.; Wazgar, O.M.; Almaghrabi, A.A.; Ghandour, R.M.; Alenizi, S.A.; Mirza, A.A.; Alraddadi, K.S.; Al-Adwani, F.H.; Alsakkaf, M.A.; Aljuaid, S.M. The Use of Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging: A Nationwide Pilot Survey of Trainees in Saudi Arabia. Clin. Pract. 2022, 12, 852–866. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. Al Aloola, N.; Alsaif, R.; Alhabib, H.; Alhossan, A. Community needs and preferences for community pharmacy immunization services. Vaccine 2020, 38, 5009–5014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. Alrabiaah, A.A.; Alshaer, A.H.; Estrella, S.M.C.; Inclan, K.A.S.; Aljammaz, H.A.; Almoosa, K.M.; Alshuraym, N.F.; Temsah, M.-H.A.; Alsohime, F.M.; Alsubaie, S.S.; et al. Effects of the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on routine pediatric immunization coverage rates at the main University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med. J. 2020, 41, 1197–1203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. Alsuhaibani, M.; Alaqeel, A. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Routine Childhood Immunization in Saudi Arabia. Vaccines 2020, 8, 581. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. Omri, A.; Euchi, J.; Hasaballah, A.H.; Al-Tit, A. Determinants of environmental sustainability: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. Sci. Total. Environ. 2019, 657, 1592–1601. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. Kahia, M.; Omri, A.; Jarraya, B. Green Energy, Economic Growth and Environmental Quality Nexus in Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1264. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Almubark, R.; Basyouni, M.; Alghanem, A.; Althumairi, N.; Alkhamis, D.; Alharbi, L.S.; Alammari, N.; Algabbani, A.; Alnofal, F.; Alqahtani, A.; et al. Health literacy in Saudi Arabia: Implications for public health and healthcare access. Pharmacol. Res. Perspect. 2019, 7, e00514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. Alsofayan, Y.; Alkhorisi, A.; Alghnam, S.; Almalki, H.; Alsaihani, M.; Almazroa, M.; Alharbi, A.; Alhajjaj, F.; Alowais, J. Pursuing health sector transformation plan, Saudi vision 2030: Establishing a trauma epidemiology center to reduce road traffic injuries in Saudi Arabia. Saudi J. Emerg. Med. 2022, 3, 001–004. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  66. Alghamdi, A.K.; Alsaadi, R.K.; Alwadey, A.A.; Najdi, E.A. Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030’s compatibility with women and children’s contributions to national development. Interchange 2022, 53, 193–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Yousef, C.C.; Thomas, A.; Alenazi, A.O.; Elgadi, S.; Abu Esba, L.C.; AlAzmi, A.; Alhameed, A.F.; Hattan, A.; Almekhloof, S.; AlShammary, M.A.; et al. Adoption of a personal health record in the digital age: Cross-sectional study. J. Med. Internet Res. 2020, 22, e22913. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Awadai, M.A.M. A vision to enhance the mutual relationship between Saudi universities and the private sector to achieve economic development in light of the kingdom’s vision 2030. J. Southwest Jiaotong Univ. 2023, 58, 2643–2652. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. Al Mustanyir, S. Health Insurance in Saudi Arabia: Funding Options to Manage the Risk of Government Healthcare Spending. Ph.D. Dissertation, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  70. Alsaedi, R.M.; Shahbal, S.; Nami, J.A.; Alamin, R.M.; Alhazmi, A.W.; Albehade, K.A.; Alhazmi, W.M.; Nayyaz, A.A.; Mufti, M.I.; Efah, N.S.; et al. Usability and outcomes of maternity health insurance in KSA: Vision 2030; systematic literature review. J. Posit. Sch. Psychol. 2022, 6, 2897–2912. [Google Scholar]
  71. Abdulmajeed, A.B. Barriers to and Facilitators of the Implementation of a Positive Patient Safety Culture in Saudi Arabia from Multiple Perspectives (Healthcare Professionals and Patients/Families). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK, 2022. [Google Scholar]
  72. Saber, M.G.; Ali, M.A.M. An analytical study of Insurance Sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its compatibility with Vision 2030. Acad. J. Contemp. Commer. Res. 2021, 1, 75–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. AlHasher, H.H. The compliance of healthcare privatisation with sharia and saudi law: The 2030 Saudi Vision for Health. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Kent, Kent, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  74. Alkhamis, A.; Ali Miraj, S.S.; Al Qumaizi, K.I.; Alaiban, K. Privatization of Healthcare in Saudi Arabia: Opportunities and Challenges. In Handbook of Healthcare in the Arab World; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2021; pp. 1865–1907. [Google Scholar]
  75. Alharthi, S.; Alharthi, A.; Alharthi, M. Sustainable Development Goals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s 2030 Vision. WIT Trans. Ecol. Environ. 2019, 238, 455–467. [Google Scholar]
  76. Al-Ghamdi, M.; AlTamimi, M.; Al-Azmi, N.; Al-Ghaith, T.; AlMuaither, F.; AlThunayyan, R.; AlDlaigan, F.; Bazaid, A.S.; AlShehri, A. Development of national framework for health status and health system performance indicators in Saudi Arabia. J. Infect. Public Health 2023, 16, 295–302. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  77. Bunaiyan, W.A. Preparing the Saudi Educational System to Serve the 2030 Vision: A Comparative Analysis Study. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  78. Amirat, A.; Zaidi, M. Estimating GDP growth in Saudi Arabia under the government’s Vision 2030: A knowledge-based Economy Approach. J. Knowl. Econ. 2020, 11, 1145–1170. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Yusuf, N.; Lytras, M.D. Competitive Sustainability of Saudi Companies through Digitalization and the Circular Carbon economy model: A bold contribution to the vision 2030 agenda in Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2023, 15, 2616. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Memish, Z.A.; Alqahtani, A.S.; Al-Azemi, N.; Abu Alhamayel, N.; Saeedi, M.; Abuzinada, S.; Albarakati, R.G.; Natarajan, S.; Alvira, X.; Bilimoria, K.; et al. A New Era of National Guideline Development in Saudi Arabia. J. Epidemiology Glob. Heath. 2022, 12, 373–379. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Evenson, K.R.; Alothman, S.A.; Moore, C.C.; Hamza, M.M.; Rakic, S.; Alsukait, R.F.; Herbst, C.H.; Baattaiah, B.A.; AlAhmed, R.; Al-Hazzaa, H.M.; et al. A scoping review on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in Saudi Arabia. BMC Public Health 2023, 23, 1–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Alattas, M.; Gordon, S.; Sabin, L.L.; El-Jardali, F.; Wirtz, V.J. Equity and unmet need of non-communicable diseases services in Saudi Arabia using a National Household Survey (2019). BMC Health Serv. Res. 2024, 24, 346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  83. Rahman, R. The privatization of health care system in Saudi Arabia. Health Serv. Insights 2020, 13, 1178632920934497. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Alotaibi, A.; Saleh, W.M.; Abdulbaqi, A.H.; Alosaimi, M. Setting the Health Research Priority Agenda for the Ministry of Health (MoH), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2020–2025. J. Epidemiol. Glob. Health 2022, 12, 413–429. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  85. Kumar, V.; Albashrawi, S. Quality Infrastructure of Saudi Arabia and Its Importance for Vision 2030. MAPAN 2022, 37, 97–106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Tawfik, E.A.; Tawfik, A.F.; Alajmi, A.M.; Badr, M.Y.; Al-Jedai, A.; Almozain, N.H.; Bukhary, H.A.; Halwani, A.A.; Al Awadh, S.A.; Alshamsan, A.; et al. Localizing pharmaceuticals manufacturing and its impact on drug security in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm. J. 2021, 30, 28–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  87. Khasawneh, M.A.S. Addressing Perspectives of Critical Stakeholders on Integrating Internship Programs in Translation Curriculum for Enhancing Practical Skills and Industry Connection. Migr. Lett. 2024, 21, 1–26. [Google Scholar]
  88. Habib, S.; Khan, M.A.; Hamadneh, N.N. Gender Sensitivity in Accessing Healthcare Services: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2022, 14, 14690. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Alhawsawi, A.; Wang, M. International Patient Safety Considerations. In Patient Safety: A Case-Based Innovative Playbook for Safer Care; Springer International Publishing: Cham, Switzerland, 2023; pp. 351–365. [Google Scholar]
  90. Alojaimy, R.S.; Nakamura, K.; Al-Sobaihi, S.; Tashiro, Y.; Watanabe, N.; Seino, K. Infection prevention and control standards and associated factors: Case study of the level of knowledge and practices among nurses in a Saudi Arabian hospital. J. Prev. Med. Hyg. 2021, 62, E501–E507. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  91. Arif, M. Impact of the Leadership in Managing the Quality of Care: A Comparative Analysis of Healthcare in Qassim Saudi Arabia. Open Access Public Health Health Adm. Rev. 2022, 1, 47–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Althumairi, A.A.; Bukhari, F.M.; Awary, L.B.; Aljabri, D. The effect of transformation policies on healthcare providers’ satisfaction in primary healthcare centers: The case of Eastern Saudi Arabia. BMC Health Serv. Res. 2023, 23, 1328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Al-Surimi, K.; Najjar, S.; Al Quidaihi, A.; Masuadi, E. The impact of a national accreditation program on patient safety culture in a tertiary hospital: Pre- and post-evaluation study. Glob. J. Qual. Saf. Health 2021, 4, 18–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  94. Albaalharith, T.; A’Aqoulah, A. Level of Patient Safety Culture Awareness Among Healthcare Workers. J. Multidiscip. Health 2023, 16, 321–332. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  95. Senitan, M.; Gillespie, J. Health-care reform in Saudi Arabia: Patient experience at primary health-care centers. J. Patient Exp. 2019, 7, 587–592. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  96. Alotaibi, S.Y. Accreditation of primary health care centres in the KSA: Lessons from developed and developing countries. J. Taibah Univ. Med. Sci. 2023, 18, 711–725. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  97. Al Zahrani, A.; Sikder, M.N. Maturity of Clinical Audit Concept in Saudi Arabian Health Care Practice: A Review. Saudi J. Med. Pharm. Sci. 2022, 8, 455–462. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Alharbi, M.W.; Almagrabi, E.M. Health care workers knowledge about the healthcare Transformation in Saudi Arabia: An Overview Since the Launch of Vision 2030. J. Posit. Psychol. Wellbeing 2022, 6, 2744–2757. [Google Scholar]
  99. Alasqah, I. Patients’ Perceptions of Safety in Primary Healthcare Settings: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. Healthcare 2023, 11, 2141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  100. Al-Hanawi, M.K.; Chirwa, G.C.; Kamninga, T.M.; Manja, L.P. Effects of financial inclusion on access to emergency funds for healthcare in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J. Multidiscip. Health 2020, 13, 1157–1167. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  101. Young, Y.; Alharthy, A.; Hosler, A.S. Transformation of Saudi Arabia’s Health System and Its Impact on Population Health: What Can the USA Learn? Saudi J. Health Syst. Res. 2021, 1, 93–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  102. Alshammari, A.K.; Wahi, M.M. A narrative review of the prevalence of periodontitis in Saudi Arabia: A proposal for a national oral health research agenda for vision 2030. Open Dent. J. 2019, 13, 171–176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  103. Alqutub, S.T. Assessment of beneficiaries’ satisfaction with access to health care and barriers within the health delivery system in Saudi Arabia. Saudi J. Health Syst. Res. 2022, 2, 156–163. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  104. Al Bujayr, A.A.; Aljohar, B.A.; Saleh, G.M.B.; Alanazi, K.H.; Assiri, A.M. Incidence and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 among health care workers in Saudi Arabia: A retrospective cohort study. J. Infect. Public Health 2021, 14, 1174–1178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  105. Steckel, J.C.; Rao, N.D.; Jakob, M. Access to infrastructure services: Global trends and drivers. Util. Policy 2017, 45, 109–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  106. Jovanović, A.; Klimek, P.; Renn, O.; Schneider, R.; Øien, K.; Brown, J.; DiGennaro, M.; Liu, Y.; Pfau, V.; Jelić, M.; et al. Assessing resilience of healthcare infrastructure exposed to COVID-19: Emerging risks, resilience indicators, interdependencies and international standards. Environ. Syst. Decis. 2020, 40, 252–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  107. Brophy, S.A.; Sriram, V.; Zong, H.; Andres, C.; Mawyin, M.P.; GL, N. Heroes on Strike: Trends in Global Health Worker Protests during COVID-19. 2023. Available online: (accessed on 7 March 2024).
  108. Tan, C.C.; Lam, C.S.P.; Matchar, D.B.; Zee, Y.K.; Wong, J.E.L. Singapore’s health-care system: Key features, challenges, and shifts. Lancet 2021, 398, 1091–1104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  109. Schønning, K.; Dessau, R.B.; Jensen, T.G.; Thorsen, N.M.; Wiuff, C.; Nielsen, L.; Gubbels, S.; Denwood, M.; Thygesen, U.H.; Christensen, L.E.; et al. Electronic reporting of diagnostic laboratory test results from all healthcare sectors is a cornerstone of national preparedness and control of COVID-19 in Denmark. APMIS 2021, 129, 438–451. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  110. Abubakar, I.R.; Dano, U.L. Sustainable urban planning strategies for mitigating climate change in Saudi Arabia. Environ. Dev. Sustain. 2020, 22, 5129–5152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Nikitenko, V.; Voronkova, V.; Kozar, Y.; Oleksenko, R.; Yanchevskyi, O.; Korobko, I. Digital Healthcare in the Context of Challenges and Opportunities of Technological Progress in the Countries of the European Union. Rev. Univ. Zulia 2023, 14, 315–333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  112. Santarsiero, F.; Schiuma, G.; Carlucci, D.; Helander, N. Digital transformation in healthcare organisations: The role of innovation labs. Technovation 2023, 122, 102640. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  113. Tortorella, G.L.; Fogliatto, F.S.; Mendoza, D.T.; Pepper, M.; Capurro, D. Digital transformation of health services: A value stream-oriented approach. Int. J. Prod. Res. 2023, 61, 1814–1828. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  114. Stoumpos, A.I.; Kitsios, F.; Talias, M.A. Digital transformation in healthcare: Technology Acceptance and Its Applications. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 3407. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  115. Correia, J.C.; Waqas, A.; Assal, J.-P.; Davies, M.J.; Somers, F.; Golay, A.; Pataky, Z. Effectiveness of therapeutic patient education interventions for chronic diseases: A systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. Front. Med. 2023, 9, 996528. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  116. Britz, J.B.; Huffstetler, A.N.; Brooks, E.M.; Richards, A.; Sabo, R.T.; Webel, B.K.; McCray, N.; Krist, A.H. Increased Organizational Stress in Primary Care: Understanding the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic, Medicaid Expansion, and Practice Ownership. J. Am. Board Fam. Med. 2023, 36, 892–904. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  117. Lee, E.K.; Donley, G.; Ciesielski, T.H.; Freedman, D.A.; Cole, M.B. Spatial availability of federally qualified health centers and disparities in health services utilization in medically underserved areas. Soc. Sci. Med. 2023, 328, 116009. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  118. Greenes, R.; Del Fiol, G. (Eds.) Clinical Decision Support and Beyond: Progress and Opportunities in Knowledge-Enhanced Health and Healthcare; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2023. [Google Scholar]
  119. Tariq, M.U. Revolutionizing Health Data Management with Blockchain Technology: Enhancing Security and Efficiency in a Digital Era. In Emerging Technologies for Health Literacy and Medical Practice; IGI Global: Hershey, PN, USA, 2024; pp. 153–175. [Google Scholar]
  120. Khan, M.T.; Shah, I.A.; Ihsanullah, I.; Naushad, M.; Ali, S.; Shah, S.H.A.; Mohammad, A.W. Hospital wastewater as a source of environmental contamination: An overview of management practices, environmental risks, and treatment processes. J. Water Process. Eng. 2021, 41, 101990. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  121. Khan, M.T.; Ahmad, R.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.; Santagata, R.; Lega, M.; Casazza, M. Potential Environmental Impacts of a Hospital Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Developing Country. Sustainability 2024, 16, 2233. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  122. Goniewicz, K.; Khorram-Manesh, A.; Burkle, F.M.; Hertelendy, A.J.; Goniewicz, M. The European Union’s post-pandemic strategies for public health, economic recovery, and social resilience. Glob. Transit. 2023, 5, 201–209. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Gardanova, Z.; Belaia, O.; Zuevskaya, S.; Turkadze, K.; Strielkowski, W. Lessons for medical and health education learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic. Healthcare 2023, 11, 1921. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  124. Sukhera, J.; Poleksic, J.M. Adapting compassion education through technology-enhanced learning: An exploratory study. Acad. Med. 2021, 96, 1013–1020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  125. Al-Hanawi, M.K.; Chirwa, G.C. Economic analysis of inequality in preventive health check-ups uptake in Saudi Arabia. Front. Public Health 2021, 9, 745356. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  126. Moeti, M.; Gao, G.F.; Herrman, H. Global pandemic perspectives: Public health, mental health, and lessons for the future. Lancet 2022, 400, e3–e7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  127. Al-Wathinani, A.; Hertelendy, A.J.; Alhurishi, S.; Mobrad, A.; Alhazmi, R.; Altuwaijri, M.; Alanazi, M.; Alotaibi, R.; Goniewicz, K. Increased emergency calls during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia: A national retrospective study. Healthcare 2020, 9, 14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  128. Garcia-Perez, A.; Cegarra-Navarro, J.G.; Sallos, M.P.; Martinez-Caro, E.; Chinnaswamy, A. Resilience in healthcare systems: Cyber security and digital transformation. Technovation 2023, 121, 102583. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  129. Sawyerr, E.; Harrison, C. Resilience in healthcare supply chains: A review of the UK’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag. 2023, 53, 297–329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  130. Sodani, P.R.; Nair, K.S.; Agarwal, K. Health System Financing: A Comparative Analysis of India and Saudi Arabia. J. Health Manag. 2023, 25, 40–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  131. Alowais, S.A.; Alghamdi, S.S.; Alsuhebany, N.; Alqahtani, T.; Alshaya, A.I.; Almohareb, S.N.; Aldairem, A.; Alrashed, M.; Bin Saleh, K.; Badreldin, H.A.; et al. Revolutionizing healthcare: The role of artificial intelligence in clinical practice. BMC Med. Educ. 2023, 23, 689. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  132. Sherman, J.D.; Thiel, C.; MacNeill, A.; Eckelman, M.J.; Dubrow, R.; Hopf, H.; Lagasse, R.; Bialowitz, J.; Costello, A.; Forbes, M.; et al. The green print: Advancement of environmental sustainability in healthcare. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2020, 161, 104882. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  133. Bakry, S.H.; Saud, B.A.A. A Roadmap to AI: An Insight from the Saudi Vision 2030. In Artificial Intelligence and Its Contexts: Security, Business and Governance; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2021; pp. 201–223. [Google Scholar]
  134. Alharbi, M.S. The Referral System for Non-Communicable Diseases in Saudi Arabia: Identifying Strategies for Better Healthcare Coordination. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Austrilia, 2020. [Google Scholar]
  135. Itumalla, R.; Kumar, R.; Elabbasy, M.T.; Perera, B.; Torabi, M.R. Structural Factors and Quality of Diabetes Health Services in Hail, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1691. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  136. Sharfi, M. The GCC and global health diplomacy: The new drive towards artificial intelligence. In Artificial Intelligence in the Gulf: Challenges and Opportunities; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2021; pp. 117–139. [Google Scholar]
  137. Alammash, S.A.; Guo, S.; Vinnikova, A. Saudi Arabia and the Heart of Islam in Vision 2030: Impact on International Relations. Arab. J. Sci. Publ. (AJSP) 2021, 2663, 5798. [Google Scholar]
  138. Gizaw, Z.; Astale, T.; Kassie, G.M. What improves access to primary healthcare services in rural communities? A systematic review. BMC Prim. Care 2022, 23, 313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  139. Mani, Z.A.; Goniewicz, K. Adapting disaster preparedness strategies to changing climate patterns in Saudi Arabia: A rapid review. Sustainability 2023, 15, 14279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  140. AlDulijand, N.A.; Al-Wathinani, A.M.; Abahussain, M.A.; Alhallaf, M.A.; Farhat, H.; Goniewicz, K. Sustainable Healthcare Resilience: Disaster Preparedness in Saudi Arabia’s Eastern Province Hospitals. Sustainability 2023, 16, 198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  141. Al-Wathinani, A.M.; AlHokair, A.; Almeshari, A.Z.; Alsaqri, F.S.; Aldaihan, F.M.; Alrumeh, A.S.; Alkanhal, I.A.; Aljuaid, M.; Albusair, M.K.; Alluhayb, A.A.; et al. Ethical Awareness and Practices Among Emergency Department Personnel in Riyadh’s Tertiary Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. Risk Manag. Health Policy 2024, 17, 677–688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  142. Alyaseen, R.; Goniewicz, K.; Jebreel, A.; Alharthi, M.Z.; Alhallaf, M.A.; Albaqami, N.A.; Al-Shammari, S.; Farhata, H.; Al-Wathinani, A.M. Assessment of disaster preparedness for mass casualty incidents: A perspective from Saudi healthcare workers. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct. 2024, 102, 104300. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  143. Shadmi, E.; Chen, Y.; Dourado, I.; Faran-Perach, I.; Furler, J.; Hangoma, P.; Hanvoravongchai, P.; Obando, C.; Petrosyan, V.; Rao, K.D.; et al. Health equity and COVID-19: Global perspectives. Int. J. Equity Health 2020, 19, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Flow Diagram of the Literature Selection Process [10].
Figure 1. Flow Diagram of the Literature Selection Process [10].
Sustainability 16 03277 g001
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Mani, Z.A.; Goniewicz, K. Transforming Healthcare in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Vision 2030’s Impact. Sustainability 2024, 16, 3277.

AMA Style

Mani ZA, Goniewicz K. Transforming Healthcare in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Vision 2030’s Impact. Sustainability. 2024; 16(8):3277.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mani, Zakaria A., and Krzysztof Goniewicz. 2024. "Transforming Healthcare in Saudi Arabia: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Vision 2030’s Impact" Sustainability 16, no. 8: 3277.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop