Next Article in Journal
Fault Prediction Recommender Model for IoT Enabled Sensors Based Workplace
Previous Article in Journal
Joint Impacts of Pricing Strategies and Persuasive Information on Habitual Automobile Commuters’ Travel Mode Shift Responses
Order Article Reprints
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Technologies for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage—A Systematic Review of the Literature

Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad de la Costa CUC, Barranquilla 080002, Colombia
Department of Systems Engineering and Telecommunications, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad de Córdoba, Montería 230002, Colombia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2023, 15(2), 1059;
Received: 17 November 2022 / Revised: 28 December 2022 / Accepted: 3 January 2023 / Published: 6 January 2023
(This article belongs to the Section Tourism, Culture, and Heritage)


This work establishes the technological elements that have enabled the preservation, promotion, and dissemination of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the period from 2018 to 2022. For this, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted in the scientific databases Scopus, Science Direct, IEEE and Web of Science, which facilitated the identification of 146 articles related to the topic. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the journals, authors and topics was carried out, detailing the important variables required to establish the sought-out elements; for this purpose, the following were quantified in the papers: type, topic, categorization, country, and language; in the publications, the type of heritage chosen, the place of the heritage and the type of intervention were investigated. The number of publications reporting the use of some type of technology was also identified, finding that 70% of them show a technological approach to preserve cultural heritage, while 30% refer to other types of interventions. The technologies reported to be used the most are 3D digital technologies (44% of those showing technological applications), augmented reality or virtual reality, henceforth AR/VR (15%).

1. Introduction

Cultural heritage is a term made known in the middle of the 20th century mainly by entities interested in its protection, such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, hereinafter UNESCO, which defines it in its document resulting from the 1972 Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage held in Paris, as all tangible and intangible cultural expressions [1,2].
Intangible cultural heritage is defined by UNESCO in the same document as the practices, representations, expressions, and knowledge that a country or region recognizes as part of its cultural heritage [1].
Globally, many countries have been concerned about preserving, disseminating and teaching new generations the cultural and intangible heritages they have in their territories, and found the use of information and communication technologies a very valuable tool to achieve that goal; these tools have been applied to publicize traditional places [3], ref. [4] as well as to teach the cultural richness of a country [5,6], disseminate traditional symbols specific to the culture of each region [7,8], teach about traditional music and dances [9,10], and as a method of digital protection of cultural and intangible heritage [11,12].
Different technologies have been used for the preservation of cultural heritage in the world, and in order to provide information on what technological strategies can be implemented to promote tangible and intangible cultural heritage, this article analyzes the references that, from a technological approach, have some direct relationship with the promotion, dissemination and appropriation of heritage in general, with the purpose of making available to those interested, support to adopt good practices in future research work on the subject. To this end, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was carried out through the consultation and exhaustive filtering of 144 articles selected from different databases.
Based on the fact that information and communication technologies are fundamental allies for the preservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, their use has facilitated the emergence of a new paradigm in the conservation, preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage, known as Intelligent Heritage Management. This paradigm has as its objectives and fundamental pillars the use of technology for the application of preventive maintenance of heritage, the improvement of energy efficiency, the characterization of the profile of tourists and visitors, the increase in security and surveillance of heritage and the promotion of preservation and dissemination work at the service of the conservation and dissemination of cultural heritage. [13]
This document is structured in six sections. Section 2 describes the work related to the research topic. Section 3 presents the methodology applied for the present systematic review of the literature, implemented in two large sections: Section 4 presents the discussion and results, where an analysis is made from the scientometric variables and from the technical variables. The conclusions that led to this study are presented in Section 5. Finally, some proposals for future work are presented in Section 6.

2. Related Works

The preservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage is a commitment that many countries have assumed, as evidenced in the different studies related to the subject, such as the one presented in [14], where a systematic literature review on 3D Technologies used for the preservation of intangible cultural heritage is performed, articles indexed in Scopus, Web of Science and IEEE Xplore databases were analyzed, where it is established that the most used technologies to preserve tangible cultural heritage are: 3D visualization, 3D modeling, Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and motion capture systems.
In [15], an SLR was conducted on the use of social networks as a platform to promote the public participation process of heritage conservation, 248 articles were analyzed, and it was concluded that social networks expand the range of options for people to have a say in the decision process of cultural heritage management.
Likewise, in [16], a study was conducted with the objective of identifying different alternatives to preserve cultural heritage in the context of smart cities. To achieve this, a literature review was conducted in Google Scholar and Portal Capes, where 80 articles were analyzed; the study concluded that 3D scanning techniques, Building Information Modeling (BIM), mobile applications for integrated management of asset preservation and sensors for the acquisition and analysis of data from collections in real time are the most applied technologies in the contexts of smart cities.
In turn, in [17], a study is conducted where the ethical implications of technological interventions to preserve cultural heritage are reviewed, providing a framework to review and apply ethical concepts to improve the processes of “planning, recording, processing and dissemination of digital workflows for heritage preservation”. This implies an appropriate use of digital heritage recording.
In [18], a review focused on techniques and technologies used in materials that are used for the conservation of material cultural heritage that does not affect the health of people; in this sense, articles published in the Scopus database are reviewed, using the keywords “nanoparticles”, “leaching” and “coatings”, as a result, important information is provided showing the best options for leaching with nanoparticles estimation that can be applied in the conservation of cultural heritage, such as building facades and bronze sculptures, among others.
Reference [19] presents a systematic literature review that addresses intangible cultural heritage and its relationship with urban resilience by searching the Scopus and Web of Science databases, where 94 articles were analyzed. The study shows that there are links between both areas of study and considers that ICH should be integrated into urban resilience discourses.

3. Methodology

SLR constitutes a valuable tool for the construction of state-of-the-art research; it allows the creation of frameworks on which future research is supported [20]; reference [21] cited by [22] defines it as a review that strives to comprehensively identify, evaluate and synthesize all relevant studies on a given topic.
There are different methodologies for conducting SLR. In [20], one of three stages is proposed: the first constitutes the definition of search parameters (definition of hypotheses, construction and validation of search strings), the second stage refers to the identification, compilation and debugging of information from the articles consulted and the final stage is the analysis of results from the compiled information.
An SLR similar to this has been raised in [23], but its approach has been more theoretical; it consists of three stages, the first consists of a review of electronic articles that allows the collection of relevant data. The second stage consists of analyzing and synthesizing the collected documents and writing the research results. Finally, considerations and conclusions are formulated.
For the development of this work, the methodology applied in [20] was selected. For the definition of the search parameters, initially, a preliminary literature review was conducted in the field of research (consulting documents such as reviews and overviews), which allowed the identification of the hypotheses that mark the horizon of this study and, with them raise the research questions whose answer will be sought throughout this work.
The research questions that served as a guide to narrow the search parameters and conduct the SLR were:
Q1-What types of interventions have enabled the conservation and preservation of the world’s cultural heritage in the period 2018–2022?
Q2-What types of technologies have been used to conserve and preserve cultural heritage globally in the period 2018–2022?
Based on the above research questions, the key terms used for the construction of the search strings to be used in the SLR were identified (see Figure 1).
Figure 1 shows the scheme representing the search strings used, using as a particular focus in the thematic axes the words: “Cultural Heritage”, “Conservation”, “Preservation”, “Technology”.
The search strings constructed were validated in several specialized databases, which were selected from among the most recognized worldwide: Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, IEEE and Science Direct, which are related to the actuarial framework of the research that supports this article.
On the other hand, Table 1 presents the thematic axes considered and explains their combination strategies in the elaboration of the search strings. These combinations were used both in ascending and descending order.
Thematic axis 1 is directed towards the different types of heritage, while thematic axis 2 is centered on the main theme, which is the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage. Thematic axis 3 is more specific to the term’s technology. The strategy consisted of combining, in the different possible ways, these three thematic axes by means of the logical connectors AND, and OR, limiting them in time to the period 2018–2022 to ensure the observation window of interest is maintained.
With these search strings, we proceeded to the second stage. In this stage, the different articles downloaded from the specialized databases were compiled and filtered, eliminating duplicate articles and those that did not directly obey the purpose of the research.
With the previous step, 142 articles were compiled, and with them, a data acquisition matrix was constructed that documented for each article the scientometric and technical variables that will be described in the following section. The final stage consisted of developing different analyses based on the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the documented variables.
The technical variables used to document the bulk of the articles and especially those directly related to technologies applied to the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage, were: (1) Type of heritage, (2) Location of the heritage, and (3) Type of intervention, which corresponds to the processes developed to preserve and/or conserve the chosen heritage. At the same time, other more specific technical variables were documented considering the type of technology implemented.
The last stage of the research is the discussion of the results and conclusions.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Scientometric Analysis

For the study of the 146 publications found in the previous step, the following variables were used as scientometric variables: number of articles published by each database, year of publication, publication medium (proceedings, journal or book, in the case of a journal, the quartile is identified), it was also considered important to identify the countries of publication, both of the journal or event and of the authors (country of the first author) and finally the language of publication, all of them considering the subject of interest, filtered according to the search strings described above.
This analysis began with the quantification of the publications found according to the databases. The databases considered were IEEE, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus-Web of Science, and Scopus-Web of Science- Science Direct, as shown in Figure 2.
In Figure 2, it is identified that the scientific database with the highest number of publications found in the area of interest between 2018 and 2022 was Scopus, with 76 articles corresponding to 52% of the articles consulted. Scopus is one of the most accessed databases in the world; in addition, the focus of the articles published on this database is consistent with that of the present research.
From Figure 3, the subject studied shows a growing trend in terms of the number of publications per year since 2018; because this topic was of great interest to the academic community, it was still studied despite the global pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the years 2020 and 2021. It is also evident that in the first months of 2022, publications on the subject continued to grow, which led us to believe that the trend would be maintained for the current year.
Regarding the number of publications according to the type of publication medium, the following were considered: proceedings, book chapters and those published in indexed journals.
Although only five book chapters were found, representing only 3% of the publications, it is clear from the results shown in Figure 4 that the topic is relevant for the scientific community in this area since, of the 146 publications analyzed, 100 (equivalent to 69%) have been published in indexed journals, which are usually specialized and have demanding evaluation systems, with more than one evaluator.
Normally, although the publications resulting from the presentation of papers at events are refereed, they are not categorized since they depend on the type of event, while books or book chapters go through the publisher’s own evaluation systems. For this reason, in what follows, for the categorization of the publications consulted, only the number of publications found in specialized magazines or journals will be taken into account, which according to the graph shown in Figure 4, is 100. Of these, 90 journals were categorized, and 10 were not categorized, equivalent to 62% of the specialized publications consulted.
When analyzing these publications in journals that are categorized, it was found that 53 of them (corresponding to 59%) are categorized in Q1, 26 of them (corresponding to 29%) are categorized in Q2, 7 of them (corresponding to 8%) are in Q3, and the remaining 4 (corresponding to 4%) are in Q4. Figure 5 graphically shows the distribution described above, the categorization based on Scopus.
From the previous figure, it is very clear that the scientific community that publishes in this area has seen its work well valued since, due to its relevance and importance for the interested parties, it has been well categorized. The next scientometric variable analyzed was the country of origin of the first author of the articles.
Since many countries of origin were found for the first authors of the analyzed publications, it was decided to quantify the number of publications based on the countries with the largest number of authors. In Italy, there were 41 publications in the area of interest, equivalent to 28.1% of the total, followed by Spain with 15 publications (10.3%), and China with 14 publications (9.6%); the remaining countries with their respective number of publications and total percentage are shown in Figure 6: Algeria, Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iraq, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Shanghai, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Ukraine, and the United Arab Emirates, whose individual contributions are minimal (but exist) and total 30 publications, which represent 20.5% of the publications studied.
Regarding the number of articles according to the country of the journal publishing it, it was found that Germany is the country of preference for publishing on this topic, with 34 publications corresponding to 24% of the total, followed by the United States with 33 publications (representing 23%); in this case, the conglomerate of 14 countries gathered in a single item add up to 28 publications, which corresponds to 20%, but now the countries are: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, China, Egypt, Spain, France, Italy, Jordan, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine.
With respect to the language of publication, English is the predominant language, making up 95% of the articles published (139 articles), followed by Ukrainian with 1 article, representing 1%; the remaining 3% are distributed among other languages, as shown in Figure 7.
The SLR also identified the journals with the largest number of publications on the topic of interest; this is divided into journals and Proceedings. It was found that the journal of Sustainability from Switzerland had 17 published articles, followed by five articles each in the following: the Swiss journal of Applied Sciences and the Journal of Cultural Heritage from France. The complete information on these publications can be found in Table 2. It should be clarified that not all articles are analyzed; only the journals with the highest number of articles are presented.

4.2. Technical Analysis

The technical aspects to consider when analyzing different investigations are the types of technologies applied to preserve tangible and intangible cultural heritage, in addition to establishing the type of heritage that is most intertwined with technological processes.
Bearing in mind that cultural heritage is divided into tangible and intangible, it should be noted that the primary interventions are carried out for tangible cultural heritage, such as churches, [24] museums [25], buildings [26], sculptures, paintings [27], among others, of which 131 articles (92%) correspond to tangible cultural heritage, as shown in Figure 8 [28].
In developing the SLR, the best options for applying technology to the preservation of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of humanity were analyzed.
Regarding the types of intervention documented to preserve cultural heritage, of the 146 articles analyzed, 70%, 102 are related to the application of different types of technology to preserve cultural heritage, as shown in Table 3.
Of the 101 articles related to technological intervention, the type of technology applied was reviewed, showing that 3D modeling (44%), virtual reality and augmented reality, hereinafter AR/VR (15%), are the types of technologies most used to preserve cultural heritage, as shown in Table 4.
Other technologies include gamification, digital restoration, social networks, the use of information systems, and different web technologies, among other technologies applied to preserve cultural heritage in different parts of the world.
Three Dimensional Digital Technologies
Three-dimensional digital technologies (3D modeling, 3D Scanning, 3D Visualization) are mainly widely used in the preservation of material cultural heritage; it has been applied in buildings of different types, such as castles [29,30,31,32,33], churches [34], sculptures [27], archaeological sites, [35,36] among others.
Table 5 shows the items that relate to 3D digital technologies. The heritage type item relates to whether it is natural, cultural or both; the heritage subtype relates to whether it is tangible, intangible, or both; and the final item is the specific heritage that has been chosen for the study. This same structure is used for the other types of applied technologies shown in Table 5.
As shown in Table 5, the type of cultural heritage chosen by the application of 3D digital technologies is mostly cultural and tangible. Studies vary in the application of 3D digital technologies; some studies show this technology integrated with other types, as is the case for hyperspectral data for the estimation and evaluation of the degradation of materials used in heritage restoration by using geometric information point clouds and 3D meshes [37], the linking of the physical and digital world by combining Web-Gis, 3D and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies to preserve heritage buildings [69], proposals for virtual tours [57], simulations [63], which shows that it is the most used type of technology in preservation of cultural heritage especially material.
The chosen heritages vary in type and location; the Italian ones are the preferred choice, which corroborates what is shown in Figure 6.
From each of the articles related to the application of 3D digital technologies, the following technical variables were investigated: the Methodology implemented, which describes the steps used for the intervention; the Data Acquisition techniques, which establish the techniques used to obtain the information required for 3D modeling; the Data Acquisition Equipment, which corresponds to the different equipment used to obtain information; the Data Processing, which relates to the software tools used to process the information; and finally, the End Users, that relates to what type of users the intervention is directed at (i.e., Experts: are people, entities or institutions in charge of the protection of the cultural and natural heritage of humanity; Non-experts: are users and/or tourists who visit different heritages).
Review articles and those that do not specify the technical variables analyzed are excluded. The table with complete information is presented in the Appendix A (Table A1).
The main data acquisition methodologies found are in phases, where initially a survey of information is made, making use of different techniques such as photogrammetry [27,30,36,56] scanning (laser, optical or magnetic) [25,34,38,43,50,54,57,59,64] or a combination of both [37,41,45,46,47,48,51,55,60,65,66,68,70], and application of the BIM method [26,29,39,40,41,53,67,69].
Photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning are the main techniques to acquire data for 3D digital technologies [27,30,37,41,45,46,47,48,55,60,65,66,70]. Photogrammetry is mainly used due to the affordability of the devices (cameras) required, and in the case of laser scanning, together with suitable software, it is used mainly because of the speed at which it captures and processes data.
Regarding data processing, the most used programs for 3D modeling are Agisoft PhotoScan [37], Refs. [27,30,31,48,50,51,54,60] and Autodesk [26,41,51,53,56,57,59,68,70].
In [71], a comparison is made between these two software, highlighting the benefits of each one. They point out their preference for Autodesk because it has a free version for education, but this differs with what is shown in Table 6, where Agisoft Photoscan is used more despite being a proprietary software because it has no limits on the maximum amount of photographs to process, which allows quicker processing and excellent quality results.
The end users of these interventions are mainly experts (78%), i.e., these types of interventions are carried out to obtain information that allows decisions to be made for the care and conservation of different heritages.
Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality (AR/VR)
As for the articles describing the use of AR/VR, they are presented in Table 6.
As in the previous case, the main chosen heritages are cultural and tangible, which confirms that they are the most protected by technological processes.
From the studies presented in Table 7, the following technical variables were analyzed: Data Acquisition Techniques, which establish the techniques used to obtain the required information; VR Software, which corresponds to the program used for the implementation of virtual or augmented reality; VR System, which corresponds to the level of immersion of the implementation (Immersive or non-immersive); Immersion Technology, which refers to the equipment used for the implementation of VR/AR; Data Acquisition Equipment, which relates to the different equipment used to obtain information; Data Processing, which relates to the software tools used to process the information; and finally, End Users, which relates to what type of users the intervention is aimed at (i.e., Experts: are people, entities or institutions in charge of the protection of the cultural and natural heritage of humanity, Non-experts: are users and/or tourists who visit the different heritages).
Review articles and those that do not specify the technical variables analyzed are excluded. Table 7 shows the results.
Unlike the articles presented above (Table 5 and Table A1), the application of AR/VR are more focused on non-expert users, i.e., they are mainly applications for visitors to interact virtually with the heritage, which contributes to its protection.
For these articles, photogrammetry stands out as a data acquisition technique [73,76,78,84] which establishes that for AR/VR applications, they prefer this technique to obtain the required images.
Around 77.78% of the applications are non-immersive in nature, 33% are accessed through an app for smartphones, an equal percentage are used through a high denomination computer, and the remaining 33% are accessed with both systems (App and high denomination PC).
The UE4 Unreal Engine is the software most used for visualization, among other reasons, because of the simplicity of its interaction, since you are not required to be an expert programmer to use it and also because of its fast rendering [73,78,80].
In [87], a study is presented where they develop an application that adapts the M.A.G.E.S. platform as AR to be used as VR in virtual museum applications.
It is very interesting how this application designs a device driver module to support all compatible VR headsets such as Oculus, HTC VIVE, Microsoft Mixed Reality and others. In addition, they use HoloToolK as API to integrate HoloLens to provide a Hologram service.
In [88], a study is presented for the creation of Cross/Augmented Reality applications for the Industrial Museum and Cultural Center in the region of Thessaloniki that can be replicated to showcase other types of cultural heritage.
Of the 146 articles analyzed, only four correspond to IoT technology, two applied in Italy, one in Spain and one in South Korea. The four articles correspond to tangible cultural heritage, as shown in Table 8.
From the studies presented in Table 8, the following technical variables were analyzed: Description of the Architecture, which corresponds to a brief synthesis of the IoT architecture presented in the article; Components of the architecture, which describes the elements that make up the architecture presented; Data Exchange, which describes how the information is handled within the architecture chosen; IoT System, which refers to the equipment used for the implementation of IoT technology; Protocols Used, which relates the different IoT protocols used in the implementation; and finally, End Users which relates to what type of users the intervention is aimed at (i.e., Experts: Are people, entities or institutions that are responsible for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage of humanity, Non-experts: are users and/or tourists who visit the different heritages).
Review articles and those that do not specify the technical variables analyzed are excluded. Table 9 shows the results.
As can be seen in Table 9, the platforms with IoT technologies designed for cultural heritage protection are very similar in their architecture; basically, they use nodes, gateways and a user interaction layer [89,90,91]
The main IoT protocols used in terms of short-range networks are 5G and ZigBee [90,91]. For long-range networks, the most widely used is LoRaWan [89,90].
Around 50% of the articles on IoT are addressed to expert users, and the other 50% to non-experts.

5. Conclusions

By means of a strict SLR based on the approach of carefully designed search chains to debug publications, 146 articles were filtered from which a description was made of the technological elements for the promotion, dissemination and appropriation of cultural heritage at a global level in a 2018–2022 observation window. For this review, several databases were carefully selected from among the most used for international publications, finding that most of the articles are published in specialized and indexed journals, duly categorized, most of them in Q1, in journals mostly from the USA and in English.
In response to the questions posed regarding the type of intervention that has enabled the conservation and preservation of the cultural heritage of humanity in the period between 2018–2022, Table 3 shows that cultural heritage intervention has been achieved from different approaches, where it stands out that the main interventions are technological (70%) and architectural (6%).
Regarding the second question, the types of technologies that have been used to conserve and preserve cultural heritage globally in the period between 2018–2022 are mainly 3D digital technologies (encompassing 3D modeling, 3D Scanning, 3D Visualization), AR/VR (immersive and non-immersive) and IoT platform configuration.
The use of technology to preserve tangible and intangible cultural heritage constitutes smart cultural heritage management, a term widely used worldwide.
From the above, it can be concluded that the technological elements and resources available today allow the inclusion of technology as a tool to contribute to the preservation of cultural elements and intangible heritage.

6. Future Work

Based on the results, recommendations for future research are made. The first relates to the application of technology for the preservation and dissemination processes of intangible cultural heritage, as in the case of Colombian vallenato and Spanish flamenco.
The second recommendation consists of the deepening of educational processes implemented to preserve intangible cultural heritage.
Considering Figure 8, 92% of the implementation of technological solutions is mainly in tangible heritage; it would be interesting to deepen the implementation of technology for the protection of intangible heritage in general.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, M.A.D.M.; methodology, E.D.L.H.F.; validation, M.A.D.M.; formal analysis, M.A.D.M. and J.E.G.G.; investigation, M.A.D.M., E.D.L.H.F. and J.E.G.G.; re-sources, M.A.D.M.; data curation, M.A.D.M. and E.D.L.H.F.; writing—original draft preparation, E.D.L.H.F.; writing—review and editing, J.E.G.G. and M.A.D.M.; visualization, M.A.D.M.; supervision, E.D.L.H.F. and J.E.G.G.; project administration, E.D.L.H.F. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Colombia through the Bicentenary Scholarship program in its first cohort. The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work. No funding was received to assist with the preparation of this manuscript. No funding was received for conducting this study. No funds, grants, or other support were received.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Appendix A

Table A1. Technical aspects of 3D digital technologies articles.
Table A1. Technical aspects of 3D digital technologies articles.
ReferencesData Acquisition MethodologyData Acquisition TechniqueData Acquisition EquipmentData ProcessingEnd Users
[37]Initial modeling (M1): geodetic, photogrammetric and laser scanning data
Spectral system:
Photogrammetry Magnetic ScanM1: Two total integrated stations (Pentax R323NX and Leica TCR 405), two time-of-flight pulse-based 3D laser scanners (Leica BLK 360 and Faro HDR), two full-frame DSLR cameras (Canon EOS 6D and Sony A7RIII) with multiple lenses (24 mm, 135 mm, 28–75 mm) and two unmanned aerial systems (DJI Phantom 4 Pro and Mavic 2 Pro). Hyperspectral: HyperView multi-sensor hyperspectral sensing platform using 3D-oneSoftware Agisoft Metashape v.1.6.5
Software Geomagic Wrap 2017.
Software Faro Scene and Cyclone Register 360 (BLK Edition) applying the Cloud-to Cloud method
[29]Application of the HeritageCare project with all its protocols (SL1, SL2, SL3) SL1: advanced monitoring system to keep specific structural and environmental parameters under control.BIMSL1: 12 temperature and relative humidity (TH), 7 surface and 5 environmental sensors, plus 5 sensors for surface temperature, relative humidity and luminosity (THL). Three xylophagous sensors (X). One carbon dioxide (G) sensor. 2 biaxial clinometers (CL). One weather station (EM) BIM model: Autodesk Revit Virtual Virtualization Tour: HoloLensHeritageCare Platform
Autodesk Revit Software
[27]The phases of the FEM analysis: (i) construction of the 3D model; (ii) transformation of NIF into a quad mesh model and NURBS; (iii) WEF analysis. Phases of the Photogrammetric Model: (i) alignment of the images; (ii) building of a dense point cloud (PC); (iii) the construction of meshes and the identification of the plans of the single façade; (iv) the construction of the ortho mosaic.FotogrametríaTopographic survey: Total station: Leica TS11. EDM measurements are performed using laser technology (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Scan to FEMSLR camera. Nikon D3300 with a Nikkor 20mm f/2.8D prime lens. Intel(R) Xeon(R) E5-1650v4 @ 3.60 GHz CPU (central processing unit), RAM (random access memory) 64 GB, NVIDIA Quadro M4000 GPU (graphics processing unit).Software Rhino
Software Cloud Comparison
Software Agisoft Metashape
Software Midas Fea NX
[30]Data acquisition (photogrammetry) Information Analysis-3D Modeling Using Analysis Software Calculating the severity indexFotogrametríaProcessing: Computer with dual Intel Xeon processor (128 GB RAM, 64-bit operating system). Standard Level Cameras, Carbon Fiber Telescopic Rod, Tripod, Tablet, Laser Distance Meter, Flexometer, TweezersSoftware Agisoft Photoscan
Software 3D microscopy analysis software (such as TalyMap 3D), Microsoft Excel software
[38]Exhibition platform (mirror)
Three-dimensional (3D) scanning to build a digital database of the original shapes.
Optical scanningHigh-resolution optical scanner for creating 3D models3D printing for scientific exhibitionNon-experts
[39]Implementation of the INCEPTION platform: innovate 3D models “forever”, “for everyone”, “everywhere”, developing, collecting and sharing interoperable 3D semantic models. Cloud-based platform.BIMThe BIM model allows the use of any software such as Autodesk Revit, ArchiCAD, Apache Fuseki SPARQL Dedicated Server.Input = BIM model loaded as IFC (Industry Foundation Class) processed under Windows. Semantic information is extracted and generated as (RDF), according to the INCEPTION H-BIM ontology, serialized as Turtle (TTL), stored and accessed as HTTP through a dedicated server.Experts
[35]A segmentation process was carried out in the chosen sector using the EasyCUBE PRO software of the Geomaticscube Ecosystem (Geomaticscube, 2018) Software tool called “Working Box” allows you to define the minimum rectangular parallelepiped (box) capable of enclosing a 3D object.EasyCUBE PRO software from the Geomaticscube ecosystem (Geomaticscube, 2018)Experts
[40]Knowledge: 3D Survey Techniques Modeling
Methods and modalities of access and web exchange of multiscale 3D reconstructions.
BIMOnline information system, data provided by the Politecnico di Milano.Modelo 3D: BIM technique.
BIM3DSG7:1. Database creation (DB). PostgreSQL
Software PgAdmin.
[41]Application of different data acquisition techniques for 3D modeling and literature analysis to formulate guidelines for the implementation and organization of the BIM and HBIM process for cultural heritage objectsProject 1: Terrestrial laser scanning-Photogrammetry Project 2: Laser scanning Project 3: Photogrammetry Project 4: Laser scanning and photogrammetry
Project 1: Faro X330 ScannerProject 2: Z+ F SCANNER IMAGER 5010cProject 3: NIKON D200 digital camera and AF S NIKKOR objective Project 4: FARO FocuS 150 ground scanner, complemented by drones with 6K Cinema DNGRAW digital cameras.P1: Autodesk ReCap, AutoCAD, Revit, Meshlab-BIM model: Software: FARO SCANE, Geomagic Design X, Rhino Ceros
P2: Revit Software, Laser Control Software, ArchiCAD, Software pointcab P3: Software Photomodeler Scanner Rino Software P4: Reality Capture Software. Unity CAD Program (3D)
[34]Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for data acquisition is processed using software, and a massive point cloud of approximately 426 million points is obtained for 18.27 GB file in PTS format.Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)TLS: Leica Geosystems BLK360 3D scanner [42], maximum range of 120 m (radius of 60 m), spot measurement speed of 360,000 points per second and accuracy of 4 mm at 10 mLeica Cyclone REGISTER 360 software on a laptop via the scanner’s Wi-Fi networkExperts
[43]Elaboration of a digital replica of the Heritage with photographs. Digital printing with 3D to capture murals in the caves and print them on the walls of a physical replica of the cave. Digital wall staging: (1) image segmentation; (2) damage labeling; and (3) content filling.Material heritage: high-precision scanning and photography. Intangible heritage: phonological coding methodFlying Sky gigapixel cameraA priori algorithm and the Suffix Array structureNon-experts
[44]Application of GPR to examine the ability of the method to detect cracks and changes in the thickness of the heritage wall, implementing 4 phases of measurements, making use of GPR NogginGPR (Ground Penetrating Radar)GPR Noggin (Sensors & Software) is equipped with 250 MHz and 500 MHz antennas. Synthetic GPR models and scans were performed using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method via the free gprMax softwareMatlab: Crewes Matlab ToolboxExperts
[45](1) Collection of information through photogrammetry and TLS
(2) Data processing by specialized software
(3) Production of 3D surface model.
Photogrammetry Solar Laser Scanning (TLS)SLR cameras, compact cameras, tablets, smartphonesZephyr Aerial 3DF Raster Graphics Editing SoftwareExperts
[26](1) Data: HBIM method, photogrammetric study integrated with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) study
(2) Modeling, HBIM, for VR model
(3) Features of the VR model route
(4) Preliminary Evidence
(5) Development of a serious game
An omnidirectional camera called RICOH THETA. Shader Skybox/3D Panoramic UnitBIM-based Autodesk Revit VR platform: Autodesk LIVE and Enscape-Game engine: UnityNon-experts
[25]Two fine recording methods were applied: the nearest iterative point to the nearest neighbor (NN-ICP) and the nearest Levenberg-Marquardt iterative point (LM-ICP). 3D modelado. A comparison is made between these two methods.Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)Reference Data Contrast: Topcon ES 105 Total Station TLS Device: Stonex X300 TLS ScannerCAD modeling software.Experts
[31]Analysis, data acquisition, 3D modeling and spatial analysis in the GIS environment.UAV method combined with ground control points (GCPs)Image: DJI Mavic Pro drone UAV-based camera equipped with a 4K camera, manufactured by Da-Jiang Innovations Science and Technology Co and a stabilizer camera base head.Software Agisoft Photoscan
BIM Technique
Software ArchiCAD
Motion Software Structure (SfM)
[46]Data acquisition (3D laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry) Data processing (two data sets) Comparison of the two data points.Fotogrametría
Ground Laser Scanning (TLS)Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Faro Focus 3D S120UAV laser scanner: Phantom 4 manufactured by DJI. The quadcopter has an integrated camera with a CMOS sensor (1/2.3 inch) of 6.17 mm wide and 3477 mm long and a resolution of 12MpxSoftware DJI GS pro software FARO SCENE software ContextCapture
software CloudCompare
[47]Review of geoinformatics technologies in photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science and their application to HCTerrestrial Laser Scanning Photogrammetry (TLS)Non-professional Single Lens Reflex Laser Scanner Faro Focus 3D S120Leica Cyclone 3D processing software. Online geo-crowdsourcing platformExperts
[48](1) Identification of milestones S, T and D
(2) The establishment of 3D topography and modeling of heritage objects.
(3) Planimetric support hitos
(4) Creation of the initial GNSS
(5) Establishment of GCP
(6) Thickening of the planimetric network GCP
(7) distribution of elevations to GCP planimetric milestones
(8) Red GCP completada
(9) Levantamiento fotogramétrico terrestre
Ground laser scanning (TLS) and aerial photogrammetry performed with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)Photogrammetry: Nikon D5100 18–55 VR Drone Kit DJI Phantom 4 Digital Camera, with the following features: Camera sensor: 1” CMOS; Resolution: 20 mpixels, Lens: FOV 84°; 8.8 mm/24 mm TLS scanner: Z + F (Zoller + Frochlich) Imager 5010Software Agisoft Photoscan
Software CloudCompare
Software Z + F Laser Control® Office y Scout Software CAD
[32]Satellite data collection-software data processing-3D modelingPersistent dispersive interferometry (PS-InSAR)Persistent dispersion interferometry: Image: Copernicus program: 20 images acquired by Sentinel-1A and 21 images of Sentinel-1B downloaded free of charge from the Copernicus Open Access Hub. Digital modeling: Scout LiDAR sensor (Velodyne Ultra Puck VLP 32C) and a Sony A7R II camera, both mounted on a DJI Matrix M600 PRO UAV platform.Software ENVI SARscape
Software Phoenix LiDAR Systems Software Global Mapper
[50]The three main stages consisted of data preparation, data preprocessing, and main processing.Ground laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) 3D Geoinformation System (GIS)Professional Multirotor Fixed Wing UAV DJI Phantom 3 Laser Scanner Topcon IP-S3 HD Mobile Mapping System 3Descarners Laser (GNSS)Magnet Master Field, TopconMagnet Collage, Topcon
Software Agisoft photoscan
City Engine, software ESRI
[51](1) Acquisition of geometric and photogrammetric data and analysis of the conservation status of the selected portion
(2) The formalization of the ontology for the conservation process.
(3) 3D modeling.
(4) The enrichment of parametric model data.
UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) digital photogrammetry and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) handheld laser scannerGPT3105N como estación total. DJI Spark MMA1 drone y su cámara integrada RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems). Slam MLS (Mobile Laser Scanner) KAARTA Stencil 2 ScannerAgisoft Metashape Software version 1.5.3 CloudCompare Software. Autodesk Revit SoftwareExperts
[53]Data acquisition (LiDAR method) Generated Point Cloud Mapping (BIM) Resource collection, Cleansing collected data, saving in format(.csv), and converted to XML format by Top braid Composer to be replicated with Autodesk Revit and AutoCAD Ontology DesignLiDARBIM scanning methodDoes not specifyAutoCAD
Autodesk Revit (BIM environment)
[54]Two types of GNSS receivers were used for data acquisition: (a) 3 Trimble R9 equipped with Zephyr 2 geodesic GNSS antennas and (b) a Leica GS15 smart GNSS receiver.UIAV magicians and laser scanningTrimble R9 equipped with Zephyr 2 geodesic GNSS antennas and (b) a Leica GS15 smart GNSS receiver Image acquisition: DJI Inspire 2 UAV, with a 24 MP cameraSoftware Agisoft PhotoScan ProfessionalExperts
[55]Inspect the building and obtain morphological data, at an adequate and quantifiable scale, together with complementary chromatic information that allows a high-quality definition of the external texture of each of its parts.Fotogrametría
Solar Laser Scanning (TLS)
Laser Scanner Faro Focus 3D S120 Canon 5D Camera Mark lll DSLR with Canon EF 24–105 mm f/3.5-5.6 IS STMP Lens OpCard 202Onnon DL-913/DL-Simple Model LED Continuous Light and Tripod LensDoes not specifyExperts
[56](1) Extraction of data from the conservation plan.
(2) classification of data to be included in the BIM model.
(3) Modeling of base data to include them in BIM
(4) Translation of the data model to be implemented in the chosen software
Does not specifySoftware Autodesk RevitExperts/Non-Experts
[57](1) Creation of 3D models.
(2). Formation of ontology.
(3) Creation of 3D GIS for onto-model integration
(4) Formation of ontological excursion routes
Recommended: UAV imaging and laser scanningRecommended: tripod and a special panoramic head, digital camera, lens (wide-angle or fisheye type), camera shooting cableRecommended 3D modeling: Real Works Survey (RWS) software, three-dimensional development 3Dipsos: Autodesk Inventor software, Autodesk Revit 3DExperts
[59](1) Data acquisition by terrestrial laser scanning
(2) Recording and georeferencing scans
(3) Point cloud segmentation into tiles
(4) Rearranging point cloud tiles
(5) 3D solid modeling
(6) texture mapping of polygon models,
(7) Conversion of data for import into the game engine
(8) development of motion and interaction control in Unity
(9) implementation on HTC Vive
(10) immersive and interactive visualization of the Complex
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)Riegl VZ400 scanner with Canon EOS 7D mk II Nikon D610 camera with 20.2MP CMOS sensor. RiScan for georeferencing and segmentation of point clouds ReCap for reorganization of tiles3ds Max using segmented point clouds for 3D modeling and texture mapping Unit game engine Visualization: HTC Vive VR system that uses Steam VR as an interface between the game engine and HTC Vive.Software Autodesk 3D MaxExperts
[60]Data acquisition (3D laser scanning and photogrammetry) Data processing 3D modeling visualizationFotogrametría
Solar Laser Scanning (TLS)
Active sensors (laser scanner) and passive sensors (digital camera) Professional SLR cameraSoftware Agisoft PhotoScan
Visualización: 3DHOP (3D Heritage Online Presenter
[61]CAAL satellite remote sensingRemote sensing data: very high resolution (VHR) images available through Google Earth and Bing Imagery, transmitted within the QGIS platformCORONA SatelliteDoes not specifyExperts
[63](i) 3D reproductions for the implementation of augmented reality; (ii) interaction of the gaze and gestures for the realization of applications to improve the visitor experience in the exhibitions; (iii) AI applications for the realization of useful tools/solutions for the restoration of works of art.Natural User Interfaces (NUI)Eye-tracking system: consists of a common PC, a Full HD 24 display and an EyeTribe device (ET100-The Eye Tribe Tracker 11) Application based on gesture interaction: a standard PC, a 24” Full HD monitor and a Kinect sensorDoes not specifyNon-experts
[64](1) Workflow organization
(2) Section control
(3) 2d fusion
(4) representation. Documentation and study of mechanical behavior through 3D modeling: Data collection in the field and data processing.
3D laser scannerDoes not specifyEscanear WordExperts
[36]Application of HBIM techniques to obtain the 3D Model of the chosen heritage, the data obtained are transferred to the EasyCUBE PRO software to be processed (Segmented) and obtain the analysis of patrimonial degradation.Fotogrametría digitalThey do not specifySoftware EasyCUBE ProExperts
[65]Based on the hierarchical orientation of the images through an artificial vision technique. To automate image-based modeling and produce high-quality 3D point clouds. Three-dimensional point clouds, textured meshes and orthoimages were created.Digital Photogrammetry Ground Laser Scanning (TLS)Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)DJI Inspire 1 Pro UAV platform, Zenmuse X5 digital camera equipped with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and an interchangeable lens that can be operated in real-time cinematic mode (RTK). Riegl LMS-Z210 Scanner (for TLS)Pix4D CloudCompare Software (To compare the results of two applied techniques)Experts
[66]Making a replica of Tutankhamun’s tomb using a high-resolution two- and three-dimensional capture of the images of the original tomb. The print of the images was vacuum filled on a base of milled and molten resin to be assimilated to the surface contours of the original wall.Laser scanning and photogrammetryDoes not specifyDoes not specifyNon-experts
[67]Recopilation and data processing, Identification of historical details, Constructing of parametric historical objects and mapping of parametric objects in scanning data to produce complete engineering orthographic drawings and 3D models.Laser scanning
Artificial Intelligence “AI” sensors and camerasHBIM and IoT toolsExperts
[68]Use of the platform:
(1) Geometric modeling
(2) Server usage
(3) Visor”
Photogrammetry Magnetic ScanPhotogrammetry: Nikon F-810 camera and wide angle of 17 mm. (104°) and 24 mm (83°). Laser Scanning: laser scanner of the brand Faro, model Focus 150PetrobimPhotoscan web platform
Autodesk Recap Software Open Source Cloud Comparison
[69]Application of the HeritageCare System: SL1 or StandardCare; SL2 or PlusCare. SL1, evaluates the state of the heritage
SL3 or TotalCare: integrates and manages all data collected from SL1 and SL2 using BIM Modeling
BIMHeritageCare platform, developed in PHP and JavaScript, HTMLy CSS (design language), among other web systems. To obtain information from the sensors using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) communication protocol between the platform and the server that stores the monitoring data.Application of the PlusCare protocol on the HeritageCare platformExperts/Non-Experts
[70]3D ScanningPhotogrammetry laser scanningCreaform Go! Scan 50Autodesk Mudbox


  1. UNESCO. Convención Sobre la Protección del Patrimonio Mundial, Cultural y Natural; UNESCO: Paris, France, 1972. [Google Scholar]
  2. Puerta, D.M.C. Puesta en Valor del Patrimonio Histórico Marítimocostero en Andalucía Occidental Desde el Punto de Vista del Turismo Sostenible: Estudio de Caso. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain, 2021. [Google Scholar]
  3. Manzhong, L. The Application of Virtual Reality Technology in the Preservation of Mining and Metallurgy Culture in Huangshi Region. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Conference on Information, Communication and Engineering, Xiamen, China, 17–20 November 2017. [Google Scholar]
  4. Jara, A.J.; Sun, T.Y.; Song, H.; Bie, T.R.; Genooud, D.; Bocchi, Y. Internet of Things for Cultural Heritage of Smart Cities and Smart Regions. In Proceedings of the IEEE 29th—International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, Gwangju, Republic of Korea, 24–27 March 2015. [Google Scholar]
  5. Zhu, Z.; Fan, M.; Sun, C.; Long, R. Cultural symbiosis: Chu Culture and Course Teaching of Interface Design—A Case Study on a Chinese Bestiary. In Proceedings of the 2017 the 7th International Workshop on Computer Science and Engineering, Wuhan, China, 5–7 July 2017. [Google Scholar]
  6. Tan, X.; Wu, C.Y.X. Chinese Traditional Visual Cultural Symbols Recognition Based on Convolutional Neural Network. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, Macau, China, 11–12 March 2016. [Google Scholar]
  7. Zhang, G.; Wang, J.; Huang, W.; Yang, Y.; Su, H.; Yue, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Liu, M.; Chen, L. A Study of Chinese Character Culture Big Data Platform. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data, Beijing, China, 4–6 November 2015. [Google Scholar]
  8. Huang, Y.-C.; Chen, Y.-J. Digital Image Design Research of Popular Culture Exhibition. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Signal and Image Processing, Taiwan, China, 22–25 September 2019. [Google Scholar]
  9. Ramadijanti, N.; Fadilah, F.H.; Pangestu, D.M. Basic Dance Pose Applications Using Kinect Technology. In Proceedings of the Knowledge Creation and Intelligent Computing (KCIC), Manado, Indonesia, 15–17 November 2016. [Google Scholar]
  10. Tan, S.; Chen, D.; Guo, C.; Huang, Z. An Augmented Reality System of Face-Changing Sichuan Opera Based on Real-Time Interaction. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Virtual Reality and Visualization, Hangzhou, China, 24–26 September 2016. [Google Scholar]
  11. Zhao, Z. Digital Protection Method of Intangible Cultural Heritage Based on Augmented Reality Technology. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Robots & Intelligent System, Huai’an, China, 15–16 October 2017. [Google Scholar]
  12. Liu, X. Research on the Service Platform to Realize Unified Retrieval and Revelation of Digital Cultural Resources. In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design, Hangzhou, China, 12–13 December 2015. [Google Scholar]
  13. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization—UNESCO. World Cultural Heritage Management; UNESCO: Paris, France, 2014. [Google Scholar]
  14. Skublewska-Paszkowska, M.; Milosz, M.; Powroznik, P.; Lukasik, E. 3D technologies for intangible cultural heritage preservation-literature review for selected databases. Herit. Sci. 2022, 10, 3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Liang, X.; Lu, Y.; Martin, J. A review of the role of social media for the cultural heritage sustainability. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1055. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Dutra, L.F.; Porto, R.M.A.B. Smart alternatives for the preservation of cultural heritage in the context of smart cities. RICI 2020, 13, 1378–1396. [Google Scholar]
  17. Quintero, M.S.; Fai, S.; Smith, L.; Duer, A.; Barazzetti, L. Ethical Framework for Heritage Recording Specialists Applying Digital Workflows for Conservation. In The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences; ISPRS: Antalya, Türkiye, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  18. Brunelli, A.; Calgaro, L.; Semenzin, E.; Cazzagon, V.; Giubilato, E.; Marcomini, A.; Badetti, E. Leaching of nanoparticles from nano-enabled products for the protection of cultural heritage surfaces: A review. Environ. Sci. Eur. 2021, 33, 48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Tavares, D.; Alves, F.; Vásquez, I. The Relationship between Intangible Cultural Heritage and Urban Resilience: A Systematic Literature Review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 12921. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. De La Hoz Franco, E.; Ariza-Colpas, P.; Quero, J.M.; Espinilla, M. Sensor-Based Datasets for Human Activity Recognition—A Systematic Review of Literature. IEEE Access 2018, 6, 59192–59210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Petticrew, M.; Roberts, H. Why Do We Need Systematic Reviews? In Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2008. [Google Scholar]
  22. Almatrafi, O.; Johri, A. Systematic Review of Discussion Forums in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). IEEE Trans. Learn. Technol. 2019, 12, 413–428. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Mendoza, Y.D.; Castro, M.A.B.; Castro, G.R.B. MOOC en la educación: Un acercamiento al estado de conocimiento en Iberoamérica, 2014–2017. RIDE Rev. Iberoam. Investig. Desarro. Educ. 2017, 8, 259–278. [Google Scholar]
  24. Lerario, A.; Varasano, A. An IoT smart infrastructure for S. Domenico Church in Matera’s “Sassi”: A multiscale perspective to built heritage conservation. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6553. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Shanoer, M.M.; Abed, F.M. Evaluate 3D laser point clouds registration for cultural heritage documentation. Egypt. J. Remote Sens. Space Sci. 2018, 21, 295–304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  26. Ruffino, P.A.; Permadi, D.; Gandino, E.; Haron, A.; Osello, A.; Wong, C.O. Digital technologies for inclusive cultural heritage: The case study of serralunga d’alba castle. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, IV-2/W6, 141–147. [Google Scholar]
  27. Alfio, V.S.; Costantino, D.; Pepe, M.; Garofalo, A.R. A Geomatics Approach in Scan to FEM Process Applied to Cultural Heritage Structure: The Case Study of the Colossus of Barletta. Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 664. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Ricca, M.; Alberghina, M.F.; Randazzo, L.; Schiavone, S.; Donato, A.; Albanese, M.P.; La Russa, M.F. A combined non-destructive and micro-destructive approach to solving the forensic problems in the field of cultural heritage: Two case studies. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 6951. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Masciotta, M.G.; Morais, M.J.; Ramos, L.F.; Oliveira, D.V.; Sanchez-Aparicio, L.J.; Gonzalez-Aguilera, D. A Digital-based Integrated Methodology for the Preventive Conservation of Cultural Heritage: The Experience of HeritageCare Project. Int. J. Archit. Herit. 2021, 15, 844–863. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Galantucci, R.A.; Fatiguso, F.; Galantucci, L.M. A proposal for a new standard quantification of damages of cultural heritages, based on 3D scanning. Sci. Res. Inf. Technol. 2018, 8, 121–138. [Google Scholar]
  31. Sestras, P.; Ros, S.; Bilas, S.; Nas, S.; Buru, S.M.; Kovacs, L.; Spalevic, V.; Sestras, A.F. Feasibility assessments using unmanned aerial vehicle technology in heritage buildings: Rehabilitation-restoration, spatial analysis and tourism potential analysis. Sensors 2020, 20, 2054. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  32. Moise, C.; Lazar, A.-M.; Mihalache, C.E.; Dedulescu, L.A.; Negula, I.F.D.; Badea, A.; Poenaru, V.D.; Moise, R.; Ortan, A.R. Geomatics Technologies in the Framework of Multidisciplinary Project for Integrated Management of Cultural Heritage Sites. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2020, XLIII-B2-2, 1477–1484. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Li, C.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.; Fu, M. Research on non-destructive testing technology in renovating projects of Mukden palace. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W11, 721–726. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  34. Antón, D.; Pineda, P.; Medjdoub, B.; Iranzo, A. As-built 3D heritage city modelling to support numerical structural analysis: Application to the assessment of an archaeological remain. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1276. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  35. Maffei, S.P.; Canevese, E.; De Gottardo, T.; Pizzol, L. Advanced 3d technology in support of the BIM processes in the cultural heritage: In-depth analysis of the case study of the roman fluvial port of Aquileia (Italy). Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W11, 989–993. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  36. Maffei, S.P.; Canevese, E.; De Gottardo, T. The real in the virtual. The 3D model in the cultural heritage sector: The tip of the iceberg. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W9, 615–621. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  37. Kolokoussis, P.; Skamantzari, M.; Tapinaki, S.; Karathanassi, S.; Georgopoulos, A. 3D and hyperspectral data integration for assessing material degradation in medieval masonry heritage buildings. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2021, XLIII-B2-2, 583–590. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Jo, Y.H.; Kim, J.; Cho, N.C.; Lee, C.H.; Yun, Y.H.; Kwon, D.K. A study on planning and platform for interactive exhibition of scientific cultural heritage. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W15, 605–607. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  39. Di Giulio, R.; Maietti, F.; Piaia, E. Advanced 3D survey and modelling for enhancement and conservation of cultural heritage: The inception project. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, 962, 325–335. [Google Scholar]
  40. Tommasi, C.; Achille, C.; Fanzini, D.; Fassi, F. Advanced Digital Technologies for the Conservation and Valorisation of the UNESCO Sacri Monti. In Digital Transformation of the Design, Construction and Management Processes of the Built Environment; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2020; pp. 379–387. [Google Scholar]
  41. Janisio-Pawlowska, D. Analysis of the Possibilities of Using HBIM Technology in the Protection of Cultural Heritage, Based on a Review of the Latest Research Carried out in Poland. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 633. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Tong, Z.L.W. Application of oblique photography and GIS technologies in the integrated conservation and development of historic cities in China: Practices in Shigatse, Tibet and Quanzhou (Zayton), Fujian. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, 42, 1203–1208. [Google Scholar]
  43. Li, M.; Wang, Y.; Xu, Y.-Q. Computing for Chinese Cultural Heritage. Vis. Inform. 2021, 6, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Manataki, M.; Sarris, A.; Oikonomou, D.; Simirdanis, K.; Strapazzon, G.; Fernández, P.T. Contribution of GPR Method in Monitoring and Evaluating the Conservation State of Fortezza, Rethymno, Greece. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Rapperswil, Switzerland, 18–21 June 2018. [Google Scholar]
  45. Tucci, G.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.; Mei, F.; Parisi, E.I. Digital photogrammetry as a resource for Cuban cultural heritage: Educational experiences and community engagement within the innova Cuba project. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2018, XLII-5, 37–44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  46. Chatzistamatis, S.; Kalaitzis, P.; Chaidas, K.; Chatzitheodorou, C.; Papadopoulou, E.; Tataris, G.; Soulakellis, N. Fusion of TLS and UAV photogrammetry data for post-earthquake 3D modeling of a cultural heritage Church. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2018, XLII-3/W4, 143–150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  47. Xiao, W.; Mills, J.; Guidi, G.; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, P.; Barsanti, S.G.; Gonzalez-Aguilera, D. Geoinformatics for the conservation and promotion of cultural heritage in support of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 2018, 142, 389–406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Radulescu, V.M.; Radulescu, G.M.T.; Nas, S.; Radulescu, A.T.; Bondrea, M.; Radulescu, C.M. Geoinformatics technologies for preservation of cultural heritage, case study, Rakoczi-Banffy castle, Urmeni, Bistria Nasaud County, Romania. J. Appl. Eng. Sci. 2021, 11, 41–48. [Google Scholar]
  49. Yang, C.; Han, F.; Wu, H.; Chen, Z. Heritage landscape information model (HLIM): Towards a contextualized framework for digital landscape conservation in China. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W15, 1221–1227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  50. Noor, N.M.; Ibrahim, I.; Abdullah, A.; Abdullah, A.A.A. Information fusion for cultural heritage three-dimensional modeling of Malay cities. Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 2020, 9, 177. [Google Scholar]
  51. Di Stefano, F.; Gorreja, A.; Malinverni, E.; Mariotti, C. Knowlegde Modeling for Heritage Conservatuon Process: From Survey to HBIM implementation. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2020, XLIV-4/W1, 19–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Tommasi, C. Modalities of valorisation and promotion of cultural heritage through ICT: Adding new milestones to the “standard” practice. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2021, XLVI-M-1-2, 745–752. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Noor, S.; Shah, L.; Adil, M.; Gohar, N.; Saman, G.E.; Jamil, S.; Qayum, F. Modeling and representation of built cultural heritage data using semantic web technologies and building information model. Comput. Math. Organ. Theory 2019, 25, 247–270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Themistocleous, K.; Danezis, C.; Gikas, V. Monitoring ground deformation of cultural heritage sites using SAR and geodetic techniques: The case study of Choirokoitia, Cyprus. Appl. Geomat. 2020, 13, 37–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Cosme, G.M.; Lorenzo, C.V. New technologies for the documentation and preservation of the maya cultural heritage. The palace of the governor at Uxmal (Yucatán, Mexico). Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2020, 44, 397–403. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Rebec, K.M.; Deanovi, B.; Oostwegel, L. Old buildings need new ideas: Holistic integration of conservation-restoration process data using Heritage Building Information Modelling. J. Cult. Herit. 2022, 55, 30–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Honchar, A.; Dovgyi, S.; Popova, M. Ontological Approach to Consolidation of 3D Models of Objects of Historical and Cultural Heritage and GIS. Radio Electron. Comput. Syst. 2021, 1, 81–91. [Google Scholar]
  58. Diara, F.; Rinaudo, F. Open source hbim for cultural heritage: A project proposal. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2018, XLII-2, 303–309. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  59. Kan, T.; Buyuksalih, G.; Ozkan, G.E.; Baskaraca, P. Rapid 3D digitalization of the cultural heritage: A case study on Istanbul Suleymaniye social complex (Kulläye). Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, 42, 645–652. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  60. Cardaci, A.; Versaci, A. Research and technological innovation for the knowledge, conservation and valorization of cultural heritage in Sicily. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W15, 247–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  61. Nebbia, M.; Cilio, F.; Bobomulloev, B. Spatial risk assessment and the protection of cultural heritage in southern Tajikistan. J. Cult. Herit. 2021, 49, 183–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. Acke, L.; De Vis, K.; Verwulgen, S.; Verlinden, J. Survey and literature study to provide insights on the application of 3D technologies in objects conservation and restoration. J. Cult. Herit. 2021, 49, 272–288. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Cantoni, V.; Mosconi, M.; Setti, A. Technological innovation and its enhancement of cultural heritage. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Symposium on INnovations in Intelligent SysTems and Applications (INISTA), Sofia, Bulgaria, 3–5 July 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Mechiche, R.; Zeghlache, H. The digitization of shared cultural built heritage highlighted in “Heritage at Risk in Algeria. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2020, 949, 012021. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  65. Manajitprasert, S.; Tripathi, N.K.; Arunplod, S. Three-dimensional (3D) modeling of cultural heritage site using UAV imagery: A case study of the pagodas in Wat Maha That, Thailand. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3640. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  66. Wong, L.; Quintero, M.S. Tutankhamen’s two tombs: Replica creation and the preservation of our cultural heritage in the digital age. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W11, 1145–1150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Elabd, N.; Mansour, Y.; Khodier, L. Utilizing innovative technologies to achieve resilience in heritage buildings preservation. Dev. Built Environ. 2021, 8, 100058. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  68. Agustín, L.; Quintilla, M. Virtual reconstruction in BIM Technology and digital inventories of heritage. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W15, 25–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  69. Sánchez-Aparicio, L.J.; Masciotta, M.-G.; García-Alvarez, J.; Ramos, L.F.; Oliveira, D.V.; Martín-Jiménez, J.A.; González-Aguilera, D.; Monteiro, P. Web-GIS approach to preventive conservation of heritage buildings. Autom. Constr. 2020, 118, 103304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Comes, R.; Neam, C.; Grec, C.; Buna, Z.; Găzdac, C.; Mateescu-Suciu, L. Digital Reconstruction of Fragmented Cultural Heritage Assets: The Case Study of the Dacian Embossed Disk from Piatra Roșie. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 8131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Mieza, M.S.; Bertola, M.J.; Fruccio, W.; Di Sario, N. Análisis de Diferentes Softwares para Reconstrucción de Objetos Mediante Técnicas de Fotogrametría Digital. In Proceedings of the XVI Congreso Nacional de Profesores de Expresión Gráfica en Ingeniería, Arquitectura y Carreras Afines, Buenos Aires, 3–4 October 2019; Available online: (accessed on 16 November 2022).
  72. Polyakova, I.R.; Maglieri, G.; Mirri, S.; Salomoni, P.; Mazzeo, R. Art Scene Investigation: Discovering and Supporting Cultural Heritage Conservation through Mobile AR. In Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM 2019—IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), Paris, France, 29 April–2 May 2019; pp. 584–589. [Google Scholar]
  73. Carrión-Ruiz, B.; Blanco-Pons, S.; Duong, M.; Chartrand, J.; Li, M.; Prochnau, K.; Fai, S.; Lerma, J.L. Augmented Experience to Disseminate Cultural Heritage: House of Commons Windows, Parliament Hill National Historic Site (Canada). Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, 42, 243–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  74. Fanani, A.Z.; Hastuti, K.; Syarif, A.M.; Harsanto, P.W. Challenges in Developing Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality and Mixed-Reality Applications: Case Studies on A 3D-Based Tangible Cultural Heritage Conservation. IJACSA Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl. 2021, 12, 219–227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Salameh, M.M.; Touqan, B.A.; Awad, J.; Salameh, M.M. Heritage conservation as a bridge to sustainability assessing thermal performance and the preservation of identity through heritage conservation in the Mediterranean city of Nablus. Ain Shams Eng. J. 2022, 13, 101553. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Arias, A.G.A.; Escobar, J.J.M.; Padilla, R.T.; Matamoros, O.M. Historical-cultural sustainability model for archaeological sites in Mexico using virtual technologies. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7337. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Günay, S. Impact of integration of digital technologies in lost architectural heritage visualization in post-conflict societies. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2021, XLVI-M-1-2, 285–291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Paladini, A.; Dhanda, A.; Ortiz, M.R.; Weigert, A.; Nofal, E.; Min, A.; Gyi, M.; Su, S.; Van Balen, K.; Quintero, M.S. Impact of Virtual Reality Experience on Accessibility of Cultural Heritage. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2019, XLII-2/W11, 929–936. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Presti, O.L.; Carli, M.R. Italian catacombs and their digital presence for underground heritage sustainability. Sustainability 2021, 13, 12010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Deng, X.; Kim, I.T.; Shen, C. Research on Convolutional Neural Network-Based Virtual Reality Platform Framework for the Intangible Cultural Heritage Conservation of China Hainan Li Nationality: Boat-Shaped House as an Example. Hindawi Math. Probl. Eng. 2021, 2021, 5538434. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  81. Aygen, F.Z.; Nicole, D.L. Special section preface: Digital heritage knowledge platforms. Virtual Archaeol. Rev. 2020, 11, 2–3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  82. Zhong, H.; Wang, L.; Zhang, H. The Application of Virtual Reality Technology in the Digital Preservation of Cultural Heritage. Comput. Sci. Inf. Syst. 2021, 18, 535–551. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Anwar, W.F.F. The Implication of Smart Environment on Old Palembang Cultural Heritage Places. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2019, 396, 012031. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  84. Xiong, Z.; Zhi, L.; Jiang, J. Virtual Reality Technology Applied Research in Terms of Red Cultural Relic Protection. In Proceedings of the 2018 International Joint Conference on Information, Media and Engineering (ICIME), Osaka, Japan, 12–14 December 2018. [Google Scholar]
  85. Cantatore, E.; Lasorella, M.; Fatiguso, F. Virtual reality to support technical knowledge in cultural heritage. The case study of cryptoporticus in the archaeological site of Egnatia (Italy). Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. 2020, XLIV-M-1-2, 465–472. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Napolitano, R.K.; Scherer, G.; Glisic, B. Virtual tours and informational modeling for conservation of cultural heritage sites. J. Cult. Herit. 2018, 29, 123–129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  87. Geronikolakis, E.; Zikas, P.; Kateros, S.; Lydatakis, N.; Georgiou, S.; Kentros, M.; Papagiannakis, G. A True AR Authoring Tool for Interactive Virtual Museums. In Visual Computing in Cultural Heritage; Springer Nature: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2020; pp. 225–241. [Google Scholar]
  88. Geronikolakis, E.; Tsioumas, M.; Bertrand, S.; Loupas, A.; Zikas, P.; Papagiannakis, G. New Cross/Augmented Reality Experiences for the Virtual Museums of the Future. In Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2018; pp. 518–527. [Google Scholar]
  89. Perles, A.; Perez-Marin, E.; Mercado, R.; Segrelles, J.D.; Blanquer, I.; Zarzo, M.; Garcia-Diego, F.J. An energy-efficient internet of things (IoT) architecture for preventive conservation of cultural heritage. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 2018, 81, 566–581. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Lerario, A. Article the IoT as a key in the sensitive balance between development needs and sustainable conservation of cultural resources in Italian heritage cities. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6952. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  91. Lee, W.; Lee, D.-H. Cultural Heritage and the Intelligent Internet of Things. ACM J. Comput. Cult. Herit. 2019, 12, 21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Diagram of the search chains built for the bibliographic compilation referring to the subject under study.
Figure 1. Diagram of the search chains built for the bibliographic compilation referring to the subject under study.
Sustainability 15 01059 g001
Figure 2. Number of publications: vs: Databases.
Figure 2. Number of publications: vs: Databases.
Sustainability 15 01059 g002
Figure 3. Number of publications: vs: Year of publication.
Figure 3. Number of publications: vs: Year of publication.
Sustainability 15 01059 g003
Figure 4. Number of publications: vs: Publication media type.
Figure 4. Number of publications: vs: Publication media type.
Sustainability 15 01059 g004
Figure 5. Number of journal publications: vs: quartile.
Figure 5. Number of journal publications: vs: quartile.
Sustainability 15 01059 g005
Figure 6. Number of publications: vs: country of the first author.
Figure 6. Number of publications: vs: country of the first author.
Sustainability 15 01059 g006
Figure 7. Number of publications according to the language of the paper.
Figure 7. Number of publications according to the language of the paper.
Sustainability 15 01059 g007
Figure 8. Number of publications according to the type of cultural heritage.
Figure 8. Number of publications according to the type of cultural heritage.
Sustainability 15 01059 g008
Table 1. Thematic axes and combination strategies used in the review.
Table 1. Thematic axes and combination strategies used in the review.
Thematic Axis 1Thematic Axis 2Thematic Axis 3
“Cultural Heritage”ConservationTechnology
Link 1:Thematic Axis 1 AND Thematic Axis 2
Link 2:Thematic Axis 1 AND Thematic Axis 3
Link 3:Thematic Axis 2 AND Thematic Axis 3
Link 4:Thematic Axis 1 AND Thematic Axis 2 AND Thematic Axis 3
Table 2. Journals with more publications.
Table 2. Journals with more publications.
JournalNumber of PapersQuartile SJRQuartile JCRArea of the JournalH-IndexISSNCountry
Environmental Science
Social Sciences
6Q2Q2Chemical Engineering
Computer Science
Materials Science
Physics and Astronomy
Journal of Cultural
5Q1Q3Arts and Humanities
Computer Science
Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Materials Science
Social Sciences
Sensors4Q2Q1Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular
Computer Science
Physics and Astronomy
Table 3. Type of intervention.
Table 3. Type of intervention.
Type of InterventionNumber of Papers%
Not applicable11%
Not applicable43%
Educational proposal21%
Renewable technologies (energy improvement)11%
Tourist proposal11%
Table 4. Types of Technologies.
Table 4. Types of Technologies.
Type of TechnologyNumber of Papers%
3D digital technologies4545%
Other technologies3431%
Table 5. Articles on 3D digital technologies.
Table 5. Articles on 3D digital technologies.
ReferenceDatabaseType of Assets ChosenSubtype of Cultural HeritageCountry of Location of the HeritageChosen Heritage
[37]ScopusCulturalTangibleGreeceRhodes Island
[29]WosCulturalTangiblePortugalDoge’s Palace of Guimaraes
[27]WosCulturalTangibleItalyColossus of Barletta
[30]WosCulturalTangibleItalyPalmieri Palace
[38]ScopusCulturalTangibleNot applicableNot applicable
[39]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyPalazzo del Podestà in Mantua
[35]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyArchaeological site of the Roman waterway port of Aquileia
[40]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyThe nine Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy
[41]WosCulturalTangiblePolandCentennial Hall in WroclawWang Temple in KarpaczSt. Gertrude Chapel in Koszalin Church in Iwiecino
[42]ScopusCulturalTangibleChinaThe city of Shigatse
[34]ScopusCulturalTangibleSpainBasilica in the archaeological site of Baelo Claudia (Tarifa, Spain)
[43]Science DirectCulturalTangible e IntangibleChinaMogao Caves in Dunhuang and the Art of Guqin (Music and Murals)
[44]IEEECulturalTangibleGreeceHistoric center of Rethymno
[45]ScopusCulturalTangibleCubaHistoric Center of Havana
[26]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyCastillo de Serralunga d’Alba
[25]Science DirectCulturalTangibleIraqIraqi National Museum Al-Mustansiriyah Heritage School
[31]ScopusCulturalTangibleRomaniaHida mansion dating from the 19th century
[46]ScopusCulturalTangibleGreeceChurch of Zoodochos Pigi in the village of Vrisa
The Old Town of Ávila and its medieval walls
The My Son Sanctuary Kathmandu Valley
[48]WosCulturalTangibleRomaniaCastillo Rakoczi-Banffy en Urmeni., Bistri.a Nasaud County
[32]ScopusCulturalTangibleRomaniaCastillo de Corvin en Hunedoara
[49]ScopusNatural and CulturalTangibleChina24 National Scenic Areas
[50]ScopusCulturalTangibleMalaysiaKota Bharu
[51]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyThe city of San Ginesio
[52]ScopusCulturalTangibleNot applicableNot applicable
[54]ScopusNaturalTangibleCyprusThe Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia
[55]ScopusCulturalTangibleMexicoGovernor’s Palace, located in the Mayan city of Uxmal-Yucatan
[56]Science DirectCulturalTangibleSloveniaDusk’s homestead and Recica near Bled (Recica near Bled)
[57]ScopusCulturalTangibleNot applicableNot applicable
[58]ScopusCulturalTangibleNot applicableNot applicable
[59]ScopusCulturalTangibleTurkeySuleymaniye Complex
[60]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyArchaeological heritage of the island of Sicily
[33]ScopusCulturalTangibleChinaMukden Palace: Dazheng Hall and the wooden structure of the Ancestral Temple
[61]Science DirectCulturalTangibleTajikistanSouth Khatlon
[62]Science DirectCulturalTangibleNot applicableNot applicable
[64]ScopusCulturalTangibleAlgeriaThe Mosque of the minaret of El Attik, the mausoleum of Scipio and the status of the fountain of Fouara
[36]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyArchaeological site of the Roman river port of Aquileia
[65]ScopusCulturalTangibleThailandPagoda en Wat Maha That
[66]ScopusCulturalTangibleEgyptTutankhamun’s tomb
[67]Science DirectCulturalTangibleUnited StatesThe Alamo San Antonio de Valero Mission
[68]ScopusCulturalTangibleSpainArchitectural heritage in Aragon
[69]ScopusCulturalTangibleSpainthe General Historical Library of Salamanca
[70]ScopusCulturalTangibleRomaniaDacian Embossed Disk from Piatra Ros
Table 6. Articles on 3D-(AR/VR).
Table 6. Articles on 3D-(AR/VR).
ReferenceDatabaseType of Assets ChosenSubtype of Cultural HeritageCountry of Location of the HeritageChosen Heritage
[72]IEEECulturalTangibleKoreaTombs Koguryo
[73]ScopusCulturalTangibleCanadaOne of the neo-Gothic window frames of the House of Commons in the Central Block of Parliament Hill National Historic Site
CulturalTangibleNot applicableNot applicable
[75]Science DirectCulturalTangiblePalestinethe Mediterranean city of Nablus
[76]ScopusCulturalTangibleMexicoArchaeological site of El Tepozteco
Izmir in Turkey and Thessaloniki in Greece
[78]ScopusCulturalTangibleMyanmarMyin-pya-gu Buddhist Temple in Bagan City
[79]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyItalian Catatumbas
[81]ScopusCulturalTangibleNot applicableNot applicable
[82]WosCulturalTangibleNot applicableNot applicable
[83]ScopusCulturalTangibleIndonesianPalembang Historic Sites
[84]IEEECulturalTangibleChinaFang Zhimin Martyrs Cemetery-red cultural relics in Jiangxi Province
[85]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyEgnatia Underground Cryptoporticus
[86]WosCulturalTangibleUnited StatesPrinceton University Campus
[87]ScopusCulturalTangible e IntangibleGreeceKnossos Palace
[88]ScopusCulturalTangibleGreeceBrief History of the Museum
Table 7. Technical aspects of 3D-(AR/VR) articles.
Table 7. Technical aspects of 3D-(AR/VR) articles.
ReferenceData Acquisition TechniqueVR Software (Development)VR SYSTEMVR SETImmersion TechnologyData Acquisition EquipmentData ProcessingEnd Users
[72]Does not specifyA-frameNon-immersiveApp / PC of high denominationsBookmarks supported in ARToolKit: Hiro markerDoes not specifyDoes not specifyNon-Experts
[73]Photogrammetry and T for building information modeling (BIM) combined with Augmented Reality (AR)Vuforia Engine System Development Kit (SDK) for UnityNon-immersiveAppDoes not specifyRobot WhoSoftware Revit Software RhinoNon-Experts
[76]PhotogrammetryDoes not specifyNon-ImmersiveAppHolographic DeviceSony CyberShot Camera Model DSC-HX200V in RAW formatProvision device (Non-specific)MATLABNon-Experts
[77]Does not specifyUnityNon-immersiveAppDoes not specifyDoes not specifyDoes not specifyNon-Experts
[78]PhotogrammetryUnreal Engine for Epic Games: Sistema Blueprints Visual ScriptingImmersiveHigh Denomination PC(HMD) HTCCameras (non-specific)Software Reality CaptureNon-Experts
[80]C4D polygon modeling methodMotor UE4 Unreal EngineImmersiveApp / PC of high denominationsVR HTC + VIVE SteamVRNon-Experts
[84]UAV aerial photographyAlgorithm SIFTNon-immersiveApp / PC of high denominationsDoes not specifyDoes not specifyAlgorithm SIFTNon-Experts
[85]Cartography Spheric photographsSoftware Virtual TourNon-ImmersiveHigh Denomination PCNot applicableSamsung Gear 360 camera is characterized by two 180° lenses on two sides (spherical head), a tripod and a led rod. Technical properties of the camera: Image sensor: CMOS, 15.0 MP ×2; Default output pixel (count equivalent to): 25.9 MP; Lens: f/2.2. Additional Photo Studio: Canon EOS 100D Digital CameraPhotoshop CC©Non-Experts
[86]Virtual tours and informational modeling (VT/IM)Color Panotour ProNon-immersiveHigh Denomination PCNot applicableRICOH THETA S Camera Experts
[87]Virtual tours and informational modeling (VT/IM)Unity 3DImmersiveHigh Denomination PCSupports all compatible VR headsets such as Oculus, HTC VIVE, Microsoft Mixed Reality and others.HoloLens cameraSteamVRNon-Experts
[88]SmartphonesIOS: ARKit y Unity3D by Apple
Android: ARCore by Google
Non-immersiveAppNot applicableSmartphones and tablets Non-Experts
Table 8. Articles on IoT.
Table 8. Articles on IoT.
ReferenceDatabaseType of Assets ChosenSubtype of Cultural
Country of Location of the HeritageChosen Heritage
Science Direct
CulturalTangibleSpainthe Church of Santo Tomàs and San Felipe Neri in Valencia
[24]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalySan Domenico Church in Matera
[90]ScopusCulturalTangibleItalyHeritage cities
[91]WosCulturalTangibleSouth KoreaWoljeong Bridge
Table 9. Technical aspects of IoT articles.
Table 9. Technical aspects of IoT articles.
ReferenceArchitecture DescriptionArchitecture ComponentsData ExchangeIoT SystemProtocols UsedEnd Users
[89]Modular, with flexible and low-cost nodes, sub-GHz based RF band, encrypted data exchange, based on IoT standards, Able to process transmitted and batch data collected by nodes and gateways, enables execution of processes embedded in cloud containers that consume data stored in the database (MongoDB)Nodes, Gateway, Cloud, and User InterfaceSensor information reaches the collection cloud using MQTT rendering for LoRA and an https callback for Sigfox (as needed for this platform). The node information is separated into the two categories and stored in the corresponding record. A MongoDB database is used for storage.Sensirion SHT3x sensor, low power with an accuracy of ±2% for HR and ±0.5 °Kelvin for temperature. 868 and 433 MHz ISM bands LoRaWAN band devices, 20 bytes per packet and 16.7 minutes between packets. The central node is an evaluation kit for the LoRA network that uses a multi-technology. mDot module. The rightmost node is an Arrow Smart everything evaluation kit that includes a Telit LE51-868S module for Sigfox. Multitechs Multiconnected Conduit MTCDT-210A Gateway, IBM Bluemix PaaS Cloud MultiConnect Router/Gateway CONDuit MTCDT-210A and accessory card for LoRaSigfox
[24]Modular, developed on a stack of IP and UDP (User Datagram) protocols with the reuse of the application layer DLMS (Device Language Message Specification)-COSEM (Companion Specification for Energy Metering) already defined by CEI (Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano) and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). Commercial radio modules (TIM+Fasweb+Huawei) implement the NB-IoT + IP + UDP protocol stack at the embedded level.(1) A sensor network
(2) A gateway module that handles the dialog between the sensor network and the data management server;
(3) A data management server (Big Data).
(4) A user application.
WSN network (wireless sensor network) 5G, to connect the WSN to the NB-IoT 5G network, an interface was created using the M2M communication service between the local MODBUS gateway and the MODBUS -NB-IoT gateway of the 5G network, thus allowing the transmission of the collected data to the servers of the TIM IoT cloud platform.10 linear displacement transducers, 5 inclinometers, 2 internal temperature and humidity sensors, and 1 external temperature, humidity and pressure sensorIP and UDP (User Datagram) The RS485 interface with MODBUS RTU protocol Mobile line: NB-IoT 5GExperts
[90]Not applicableNot applicableNot applicableNot applicableLoRaWan Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)ZigBeeNon-Experts
[91]IoT unit: Community sensing sensor (100 environmental sensors in ZigBee wireless environment + 5 slope measurement sensors) and communication unit + application.The IoT unit (includes a detection unit), a communication unit and an application part.IoT unit (includes a sensing unit), a communication unit and an application part. Sensors collect information + Server (Linux environment) + Wireless ZigBee for receiver and DB (SQL). Data stored in real time.Detection unit: 100 structural and environmental sensors. Co sensors consist of 2: Slope measurement
2: Structured load measurement
The devices are equipped with bullet elements. The resolution of the integrated analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is 16 bit
ZigBee with a communication interface Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio band 2.4 GHzRS485Experts
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Mendoza, M.A.D.; De La Hoz Franco, E.; Gómez, J.E.G. Technologies for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage—A Systematic Review of the Literature. Sustainability 2023, 15, 1059.

AMA Style

Mendoza MAD, De La Hoz Franco E, Gómez JEG. Technologies for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage—A Systematic Review of the Literature. Sustainability. 2023; 15(2):1059.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mendoza, María Antonia Diaz, Emiro De La Hoz Franco, and Jorge Eliecer Gómez Gómez. 2023. "Technologies for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage—A Systematic Review of the Literature" Sustainability 15, no. 2: 1059.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop