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Environmental Accounting of the Yellow-Tail Lambari Aquaculture: Sustainability of Rural Freshwater Pond Systems

1
Aquaculture Center, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Jaboticabal 14884-900, Brazil
2
Post-Graduation Program on Production Engineering, Paulista University (UNIP), São Paulo 04043-200, Brazil
3
Virginia Seafood Agricultural and Extension Center (VSAREC), Virginia Tech-Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Hampton, VA 23669, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dimitris Klaoudatos, Dimitrios Vafidis, Marianthi Hatziioannou and Nikos Neofitou
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042090
Received: 7 December 2021 / Revised: 5 February 2022 / Accepted: 9 February 2022 / Published: 12 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rural and Aquatic Sustainability)
Freshwater pond aquaculture is the prevailing fish culture system worldwide, especially in developing countries. The sustainability of such systems has not been assessed and it can be improved based on suitable scientific analyses. In the present study, we apply the emergy synthesis to assess the sustainability of lambari aquaculture, used as a model of freshwater pond monoculture in Brazil, to identify the key practices, and to propose changes to improve them towards sustainability. As a study model, nine semi-intensive lambari farms operating at three levels of management were evaluated: low (LC), moderate (MC) and high (HC) control. Results showed that the main inputs for LC were services (27–46%), feed (7–39%) and water (15–21%), while for the MC and HC farms, they were feed (35–49% and 17–48%, respectively) and services (33–39% and 26–36%, respectively). All farms required more than 60% of their emergy from purchased inputs, resulting in low emergy sustainability index (ESI = 0.1–0.5). Increasing juvenile productivity, using superficial water instead of springwater, controlling pond fertilization and replacing animal protein in diet composition by vegetable sources can lead systems to higher efficiency and resilience, increasing sustainability. View Full-Text
Keywords: rural aquaculture; water use; emergy; fish production rural aquaculture; water use; emergy; fish production
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fonseca, T.; Valenti, W.C.; Giannetti, B.F.; Gonçalves, F.H.; Agostinho, F. Environmental Accounting of the Yellow-Tail Lambari Aquaculture: Sustainability of Rural Freshwater Pond Systems. Sustainability 2022, 14, 2090. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042090

AMA Style

Fonseca T, Valenti WC, Giannetti BF, Gonçalves FH, Agostinho F. Environmental Accounting of the Yellow-Tail Lambari Aquaculture: Sustainability of Rural Freshwater Pond Systems. Sustainability. 2022; 14(4):2090. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042090

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fonseca, Tamara, Wagner C. Valenti, Biagio F. Giannetti, Fernando H. Gonçalves, and Feni Agostinho. 2022. "Environmental Accounting of the Yellow-Tail Lambari Aquaculture: Sustainability of Rural Freshwater Pond Systems" Sustainability 14, no. 4: 2090. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042090

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