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Article

Assessment of Quality Indicators of Pressed Biofuel Produced from Coarse Herbaceous Plants and Determination of the Influence of Moisture on the Properties of Pellets

1
Department of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Faculty of Engineering, Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy, Studentu Str. 15A, Akademija, LT-53362 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Informatics, Vytautas Magnus University, K.Donelaicio 58, LT-44248 Kaunas, Lithuania
3
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Technology, Benguet State University, Km. 5, La Trinidad 2601, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Barry D. Solomon
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031068
Received: 14 December 2021 / Revised: 13 January 2022 / Accepted: 15 January 2022 / Published: 18 January 2022
Three coarse herbaceous energy plants—such as Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis), sida (Sida hermaphrodita Rusby) and cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.)—were grown and investigated in the experimental fields of Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy, and the technical means of plant processing and utilization for solid biofuel were investigated. The physical–mechanical properties and quality indicators (moisture content, biometrical properties, density, and resistance to compression) of coarse stem herbaceous plants milled and compressed into 6 mm diameter pellets were investigated. The moisture content of the tested pellets was sufficiently low and ranged from 8.7% to 9.6%. The highest density was that of sida pellets (1072.3 ± 43.4 kg m−3 DM), and the lowest density was that of Miscanthus pellets (713.5 ± 67.1 kg m−3 DM). In order to evaluate the influence of moisture content on the properties of biofuel pressed into pellets, the density and the destructive compressive force of the different-moisture pellets were investigated and their change in the range of 5–15% pellet moisture content was evaluated. Criterion k was calculated to determine the effect of moisture on the pellet quality indicators (density, destructive compressive force, and lower heating value), and the following results were obtained: the highest influence of moisture on density was observed in sida (k = 34.280), on destructive compressive force in Miscanthus (k = 14.5), and on the lower heating value, also in Miscanthus (k = 0.198). After a comprehensive investigation and evaluation of these properties, an empirical model suitable for practical use was developed and prepared. Emissions of harmful gases, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, were determined when various coarse stem herbaceous energy plants were burned. The determined emissions of harmful gases into the environment did not exceed the permissible values. View Full-Text
Keywords: coarse stem plants; solid biofuel; milling; granulation; quality indicators; burning; emissions; energy evaluation coarse stem plants; solid biofuel; milling; granulation; quality indicators; burning; emissions; energy evaluation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jasinskas, A.; Kleiza, V.; Streikus, D.; Domeika, R.; Vaiciukevičius, E.; Gramauskas, G.; Valentin, M.T. Assessment of Quality Indicators of Pressed Biofuel Produced from Coarse Herbaceous Plants and Determination of the Influence of Moisture on the Properties of Pellets. Sustainability 2022, 14, 1068. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031068

AMA Style

Jasinskas A, Kleiza V, Streikus D, Domeika R, Vaiciukevičius E, Gramauskas G, Valentin MT. Assessment of Quality Indicators of Pressed Biofuel Produced from Coarse Herbaceous Plants and Determination of the Influence of Moisture on the Properties of Pellets. Sustainability. 2022; 14(3):1068. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031068

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jasinskas, Algirdas, Vytautas Kleiza, Dionizas Streikus, Rolandas Domeika, Edvardas Vaiciukevičius, Gvidas Gramauskas, and Marvin T. Valentin. 2022. "Assessment of Quality Indicators of Pressed Biofuel Produced from Coarse Herbaceous Plants and Determination of the Influence of Moisture on the Properties of Pellets" Sustainability 14, no. 3: 1068. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031068

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