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The Effects of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance Using Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior as Mediation

Yustinus Budi Hermanto
1,* and
Veronika Agustini Srimulyani
Faculty of Economic, Darma Cendika Catholic University, Surabaya 60117, Indonesia
Faculty of Business, Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Surabaya 60112, Indonesia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2022, 14(20), 13322;
Submission received: 2 September 2022 / Revised: 10 October 2022 / Accepted: 10 October 2022 / Published: 17 October 2022


One of the important factors that can affect employee performance (EP) is the employee’s perception of organizational justice (OJ) in the workplace and the employee’s willingness to carry out the employee’s primary role (in the role) optimally and the employee’s willingness to carry out tasks outside the employee’s primary job (extra-role), commonly called organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). OCB is divided into two dimensions: OCB at the individual level (OCBI) and OCB at the organizational level (OCBO). In educational organizations, the OCB of teachers is a strategic matter, so it needs to be a concern for school management if schools want to continue to survive and develop in the era of globalization characterized by changes in a dynamic and competitive environment. OCB from teachers can be said to be a form of teacher gratitude because the school has supported the welfare of teachers a lot, appreciates the contributions of teachers, and feels organizational justice practiced by the school. The respondents to the study were 820 full-time teachers from high schools and vocational high schools spread across several regions in East Java Province and Central Java Province, Indonesia, who were taken using convenient sampling techniques. This study aims to analyze: (1) the effect of OJ on OCBI and OCBO; (2) the direct effects of OJ and indirect effects on EP with OCBI and OCBO as mediation. Data analysis used the structural equation model (SEM) and Sobel test. The results of hypothesis testing show that: (1) OJ can significantly improve OCBI; (2) OJ can significantly improve OCBO; (3) the OJ was found to have a significant positive effect on EP; (4) OCBI can significantly improve EP; (5) OCBO can significantly improve EP; (6) OCBI partially mediates the influence of OJ on EP; (7) OCBO partially mediates the influence of OJ on EP. The results of this study explain the essential aspects of behaviour in the workplace, such as OJ, OCB, and EP, with a particular focus on high schools and vocational high schools in several regions in East Java Province and Central Java Province, Indonesia. The results showed that improving the EP of teachers can be achieved by organizational management through OJ practices in the work environment as well as organizational management efforts in improving the OCB of employees, considering that employees play an essential role in improving organizational performance.

1. Introduction

Employees are a key asset to any organization where employee attitudes and behaviours can affect their performance and the organization’s overall performance. EP is influenced by three factors: individual competence, individual effort, and organizational support [1]. EP is one of the important issues consistently considered among academics, researchers, and practitioners because employee performance largely determines the life of any organization, including non-profit organizations such as educational organizations. Educational organizations have a strategic role in the growth of individuals and the state [2], and teachers are one of the determining elements of the success of education services, so efforts are needed to improve the quality of education accompanied by efforts to optimize teacher competence and performance because the quality of education is also influenced by teacher achievement. Thus, efforts to improve teacher performance are a strategic step towards achieving the success of school organizational goals.
In order to maintain the long-term survival of the school organization, every school organization urgently needs teachers who perform high and show positive behavior outside of the official role of their job as demanded by the job description. School management needs to develop policies that can increase teacher performance through human resource policies that consider justice aspects, such as policies on providing fair rewards, teacher involvement in decision making, and harmonious interpersonal relationships with colleagues and superiors. Contextual performance of teachers may improve through visionary leadership, quality of work life, and OCB [3].
This also applies to teachers in the context of school organizations in Indonesia. Teachers’ performances relate to a set of work behaviors that are designed and contribute to achieving the goals of the school organization through an enthusiastic attitude and extra efforts to complete the main tasks of the teacher to the maximum. These include volunteering for the implementation of informal task activities that are not part of the work as a teacher; helping and cooperating with others; following the rules and procedures of the school organization; and supporting and maintaining the school’s organizational goals. Teacher performance is crucial in ensuring the achievement of school goals, so teacher performance needs to be encouraged to perform better continuously. Teachers play an important role in the effective functioning of educational organizations [4]. Teachers who manage their classrooms effectively would reassure better educational outcomes [5]. The performance of teacher work can also influence and determine the effectiveness and performance of school organizations; therefore, teacher performance is critical to study, especially from the perspective of OJ in schools and OCB, which is from teachers [6]. OJ has been widely recognized for predicting various personal and organizational outcomes, such as OCB and EP [7].
OCB is positive employee behaviour. OCB is a set of actions that are not included in the employment declaration or related to the position or role of an employee in an organization [8]. OCB is essential because it helps achieve organizational objectives and leads to organizational success [9]. Some studies claim that OCB has an impact on individuals and organizations. OCB has a significant impact on the performance of lecturers [10] and organizational effectiveness [6,11,12]. OCB is considered an important research topic and continues to grow over time. On the other hand, OCB is closely related to results, hopes, and company values, since it can raise emotional capital and minimize management costs.
Various empirical studies have shown that OCB significantly helps organizations. Ref. [13] stated that employees with high OCB impact organizational performance. OCB has direct and indirect effects on teacher performance [14]. OCB is essential for any organization, especially non-profit organizations such as school organizations [15]. Teaching is a profession in which OCB is important [16]; moreover, school organizations are currently facing continuous pressure to innovate and improve the quality of education, so school organizations urgently need employees who are full of initiative and more proactive [17]. According to [18], OCB in schools is closely related to changes in school functions, performance improvement, and behaviours toward colleagues. The study of [19] concluded that “OCB is an important factor for improving employee performance” (p. 55). The findings of another field study of 597 workers show the significance of OCB in explaining employee success over six months [20]. Workers go above and beyond the minimum requirements of their definition of employees by proposing amendments, impacting performance, and improving workgroup productivity.
Moreover, research on the role of OCB in schools by Dipaola and Tschannen-Moran [21] also showed positive results, one of which is creating a safe and productive learning environment in the classroom. Other research findings by [19] have shown that sportsmanship, civic virtue, altruism, and courtesy positively and significantly affect employee performance.
One of the organizational factors that can affect OCB is OJ [6,22]. OJ is a study that is still being studied by academics. It cannot be separated from organizational justice vitalities for individuals and organizations. OJ is divided into three main dimensions: distributive justice (DJ), procedural justice (PJ), and interactional justice (IJ). The relationship between performance and OJ has a long history, and the two are significant. OJ is important for organizational success and directly relates to employee performance [23,24]. Employee awards, compensation, and treatment inequalities can affect employee and organizational performance. The results of other studies [22] show that OJ can encourage the emergence of OCB in employees. Perceptions of OJ can drive the emergence of OCB in employees, and OCB affects EP.
The study contributes by integrating OJ literature and OCB membership behavior through the application of Blau’s theory of social exchange by exploring the effects of perceived organizational and individual justice on behaviors that are directed and beneficial to the organization as a whole (OCBO) and that benefit direct superiors or other individuals in the organization (OCBI). This research helps organizational management to understand OCB more deeply to improve teacher performance by examining the organizational impact of organizational justice, including distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice in OCB and EP in the school organizational environment. The novelty of this study is to study the direct and indirect impact of the two dimensions of OCB, namely OCBI and OCBO, on EP with OJ as a mediator by taking research samples from full-time teachers from 66 high schools and vocational high schools. They are research partners spread across several regions in East Java Province and several regions in Central Java Province, Indonesia.

2. Literature Review and Hypothesis Development

2.1. Dynamic Capabilities Theory

This research uses dynamic capabilities theory (DCT) and resource-based view (RBV) theory. DCT was created to help organizational leaders adjust their primary resources to change. DC is part of the RBV. DCT is a dynamic capability as an organization’s ability to integrate, build, and reconfigure internal and external competencies to rapidly cope with changing environments [25]. Organizations in Industry 4.0 must be able to quickly manage such uncertainties and pressures both outside and within the organization [26].
The implementation of Industrial 4.0 towards the era of Society 5.0 can occur in all fields, including the field of education. The implementation of education is sustainable, so school performance must be able to meet the quality required by stakeholders; adaptability and responsiveness to environmental changes are critical factors in creating school sustainability.
Schools as an education industry must be prepared for environmental changes and must be able to implement school management professionally, including managing human resources, to be able to show their best performance sustainably. School management needs to increase attention, financial resources, and efforts to find ways to improve teacher performance so that schools gain a competitive advantage so that schools continue to exist and grow amid increasingly fierce competition in the education industry. The practice of organizational justice is one of the school’s strategies for improving teachers’ performance.

2.2. OJ

The theme of OJ comes from (1) equity theory—that is, employees will be motivated and satisfied whenever employees feel that their inputs are valued relatively, because this means that there is a fair balance between inputs and outputs; (2) the theory of expectations—that is, the process of exchanging the relationship between performance and results and great effort increases motivation. OJ is an important motivator for working people. Justice is defined as a condition of work that makes individuals believe that they are being treated fairly or unfairly [27]. OJ refers to the extent to which individuals believe that the rewards received and how individuals are treated in organizations are fair and in line with expected moral and ethical standards [28]. OJ occurs when the organization ensures fair and polite interaction, ethical and impartial decision making, fair benefit and compensation packages, and sharing necessary information and feedback with employees [29]. When individuals perceive a lack of fairness, their morale declines, they become more likely to leave their jobs, and they may even retaliate against the organization. There is a positive relationship between OJ and EP, employee job satisfaction, OCB, and employees’ commitment [27].
OJ has three dimensions, namely (1) DJ, (2) PJ, and (3) IJ [30]. The first dimension, DJ, is related to employees’ perceived fairness over actual decisions made within an organization. DJ is consistent with implicit norms for allocation, such as equality [31]. Salaries, promotions, working conditions, and duty requirements are important contributors to shaping employees’ perceptions of the justice of distribution in the organization [32]. The second dimension, PJ, refers to employees’ perceived fairness over the methods used in decision making. PJ is an employee’s perception based on aspects such as whether employees are voted on procedures and decisions related to outcomes [31]. The third dimension, IJ, is related to the perceived justice of employees over interpersonal treatment received. The main determinants of IJ are explanation, sensitivity considerations, and empathy [31].

2.3. OCB

OCB can be interpreted as the willingness to participate in activities or actions that are not part of the job description but benefit the organization [33]. Examples of OCB include volunteering for extra work, working with colleagues, and sharing ideas [34]. OCB includes several elements of behavior, for example, helping others, volunteering for additional tasks, and adhering to rules and procedures in the work environment [35]. OCB is reflected through the behavior of helping others, volunteering for extra tasks, and obeying the rules and procedures in the workplace. This behavior describes the added value of employees, which is one of the forms of pro-social behavior; that is, positive, constructive, and helpful social behavior. OCB, as a behavior outside the formal requirements of the work, provides an advantage for the organization.
According to Organ [36] there are five dimensions of OCB. The first dimension is consciousness, which refers to a worker’s particular attention in performing his or her duties (for example, strictly following a job description). The second dimension is civic virtue, which refers to a great sense of responsibility to the organization (e.g., a willingness to offer colleagues advice and try to solve problems that arise in the workplace). The third dimension, sportsmanship, implies a sense of individual loyalty to the organization, manifested by emphasizing its best aspects and avoiding negativity. The fourth dimension, an OJ truism, is the willingness of individuals to help coworkers (for example, by helping new members or those with higher workloads). The fifth dimension, civility, includes the individual’s special attention to building good and cooperative relationships (e.g., trying to avoid relational conflicts between co-workers).
The five dimensions of OCB, according to Organ, can be grouped into two types of behavior, namely behaviors that benefit the organization (OCBO) and behaviors that benefit specific individuals (OCBI). The OCBI consists of altruism, courtesy, peacekeeping, and cheerleading efforts aimed at individuals, while OCBO leads to organizational interests, prudence, conscientiousness, civic virtue, and sportsmanship [34]. OCBO is a behavior that helps the organization, while OCBI behaviour is targeted to help personally or in a specific group [37]. An example of OCBO is the work attendance of employees above average and making innovative suggestions to improve the quality of the department, while an example of OCBI is helping others (e.g., colleagues) who have a heavy workload. Individuals with high scores on extraversion, approval, and/or emotional stability will exhibit high levels of OCBI [38].

2.4. EP

The meaning of work performance in organizational behaviour has changed over the past few decades [39]. EP is defined as the competence of employees in using resources effectively and efficiently to achieve goals (whether personal or organizational) [40]. EP is the behaviour of employees in meeting the standards set by the organization in order to achieve the desired results of the organization [41]. There are various terms used to describe the individual performance of an employee, such as presenteeism, performance, or productivity [42]. Performance in the role means how an employee performs specific job requirements or assignments per the employee’s official contract, while the performance of the extra role means performance beyond the bottom job requirements and individual needs of employees.
EP, or teacher performance, needs to be considered because teachers are human resources in educational organizations. Teachers are role models for students to develop positive behaviours and understand themselves and society [43]. Performance from teachers is the actual behaviour displayed by teachers at work based on applicable work standards and the suitability of their duties in school. In the study by [44] the measurement of teacher performance includes quality and quantity of work, initiative, discipline, responsibility, and independence in completing tasks or services. Teacher job performance is an actual behavior as a work achievement displayed by teaching staff to carry out the educational process in a school or educational institution, in addition to working on other activities, such as working on school administration and learning administration, carrying out guidance and services to students, and carrying out assessments. Determinants of teacher job performance refer to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia 14 Number 2005 concerning teachers and lecturers, namely teacher competence, which consists of four basic components, namely professional, pedagogic, social, and personality competence.

2.5. Hypothesis Development

2.5.1. The Influence of OJ on the Dimensions of OCB

Justice at the place of work might be specifically important to the occurrence of OCB because justice brings positive change in the minds of employees regarding their relationship with the organization. According to [45], the underlying theoretical basis for how OJ affects OCB is: (1) The theory of social exchange proposed by Homans (1961) was inspired by the theory of exchange in economics, which states that social behavior is a process of social change from a cost-benefit point of view. Social exchange theory (SET) is an employee’s view that when employees have been treated well by the organization, employees tend to behave more positively towards the organization; (2) The equity theory put forth by Adams (1965) says that the employee cares about the amount of remuneration for the employee’s contributions at work, and the employee also compares the contributions or awards they receive with colleagues
OJ can also occur in school organizations [6]. OJ is essential to developing the OCB of teachers [15]. OJ positively affects OCB (Gan and Yusof, 2018). Employees who are treated fairly will be motivated to show a good OCB. In this empirical study, the development carried out is to test the influence of organizational justice on two forms of OCB, namely OCBO and OCBI, so that the first hypothesis and the second hypothesis are formulated as follows:
Hypothesis 1 (H1):
OJ can significantly improve OCBI.
Hypothesis 2 (H2):
OJ can significantly improve OCBO.

2.5.2. The Influence of OJ on EP

Employees seek social equality in the distribution of rewards for their performance. Injustices in employee compensation, rewards, and treatment can affect EP and organizational performance. A decrease in employee performance is possible due to the presence of a perception of injustice in the performance appraisal system in the organization [7]; on the contrary, the improvement of employee performance can be due to an increase in the perception of fairness in the performance appraisal system in the organization. Organizational justice significantly impact employee performance in the organization and employee trust mediates the impact of organizational justice on employee performance [46]. The improvement of EP can be influenced by factors from within the employee himself and the surrounding environment [47]. One of the factors of the work environment that can improve EP is OJ. EP, in this study, is that teacher performance needs to be improved to produce graduates expected by all parties. Having high-performing teachers is necessary to ensure the quality of education [48]. OJ is one factor that needs to be considered as an effort by schools to improve teachers’ performance. OJ has to be synergized with high-performance human resource practices to enhance job performance [49]. Aspects of justice have become a major concern for organizations because they can affect the attitudes and behavior of employees at work. OJ has been considered a significant subject in a functioning operating organization and positively impacts EP [23,24,30,50]. OJ significantly affects teachers’ performance [6,48].
The results of this study support [49] findings that DJ—directly and indirectly—affects job performance through selective staffing and extensive training as partial mediating, while PJ is found to affect job performance directly and indirectly through incentive as partial mediating. In this perspective, OJ can be interpreted as the teacher’s perception of fair treatment in the workplace, which is seen from the DJ, PJ, and IJ aspects. OJ in schools can be applied to all teachers and staff, such as through the standardization of workload, considering their expertise, the equal treatment of all teachers and staff in terms of individual development programs, and the application of rules and rewards for teachers and staff in schools. Thus, in this empirical study, a third hypothesis was formulated as follows:
Hypothesis 3 (H3):
OJ can significantly improve EP.

2.5.3. The Influence of OCB Dimensions on EP

According to Davis (1996) in [35], EP consists of three interconnected elements, namely (1) skills, which are something that employees bring to the workplace, such as knowledge, intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, and technical skills; (2) effort, which is a depiction of the motivation that the employee shows to complete the work; (3) external conditions, which are the determining elements of performance that support employee productivity. One form of employee effort in achieving the best work results is OCB. OCB positively affects individual, group, and organizational performance [51]. The better the team’s cooperation and support through the culture of mutual help among fellow workers, the more EP will improve [35]. OCBI is essential to an organization’s success because it improves work performance, productivity, and teamwork and creates a more positive work climate [52].
Teachers’ involvement in these roles is sometimes done outside of work hours. These involvements are known as OCB. Therefore, OCB can indicate teacher behaviour that may positively affect school quality. If educators have OCB, the operational effectiveness of educational organizations will increase [53]. Teachers with high OCB are usually willing to spend their time in the school organization without expecting anything in return. Thus, the teacher’s performance will also increase if a school organization has high OCB employees. Several empirical studies on school organizations show a significant positive influence of OCB on teacher performance [6,44,54]. There is a positive impact of OCBI and OCBO on EP. Employees involved in OCBI can achieve better work effectiveness and improve job performance; employees involved in OCBO will have better job performance if employees also have intelligent human resources [55]. OCBI can lead to organizational success, facilitating productivity and improving work performance [38]. With the increasing behavior of an employee who is willing to help colleagues who are experiencing difficulties, is willing to follow the development and progress of the organization, participates in various activities at work, seeks to show performance beyond the minimum standards, and voluntarily supports the functions of the organization and is responsible for their respective tasks and obligations, then such behaviors will be able to improve the performance of employees. OCBO is a service-oriented behavioral concept, so people who work in services, such as teachers, lecturers, and education staff, are required to have a high OCBO. Studies conducted by Indartono and Faraz [56] showed the positive and significant influence of OCBO on in-role performance in public workers. Thus, in this empirical study, the fourth and fifth hypotheses were formulated as follows:
Hypothesis 4 (H4):
OCBI can significantly improve EP.
Hypothesis 5 (H5):
OCBO can significantly improve EP.

2.5.4. The Role of OCB Dimension Mediation on the Influence of OJ on EP

From the various results of the research above, OCB mediates OJs’ effect on teachers’ performance [6]. The school with DJ, PJ, and IJ can enhance teachers’ OCB, such as altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy, and civic virtue, and then implicate teachers’ performance. The principal can encourage schools to become educational organizations that can realize a sense of fairness among school members for OCBI and OCBO to improve and ultimately improve teacher performance. Previous research has proven that OJ significantly affects teacher performance, directly or indirectly mediated by the OCB [6]. When employees feel fairness in their workplace, the tendency to suggest OCB will increase among them, improving the company’s performance and effectiveness [57]. Ref. [47] shows that OCB affects EP, and OCB also influences the work environment and training on EP.
Hypothesis 6 (H6):
OJ indirectly affected EP mediating by OCBI.
Hypothesis 7 (H7):
OJ indirectly affected EP mediating by OCBO.

3. Materials and Methods

3.1. Measurement

This quantitative research approach uses survey methods, research collection, and questionnaires as a data collection tool. The scale used to measure OJ, OCBI, OCBO, and EP is a 5-rank Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). Operational definitions and measurements of variables developed as research questionnaires are presented in Table 1.

3.2. Sample and Data Collection

The study sample was permanent teachers from government-owned and private high schools and vocational high schools in the East Java region and the Central Java region. Sample determination used a convenience sampling method. The survey was carried out in schools that became research partners in East Java, such as Ngawi, Magetan, Madiun, Ponorogo, Kertosono, Nganjuk, Kediri, Blitar, and Surabaya, as well as partner schools located in the eastern Central Java Province, namely Rembang, Blora, and Cepu. Data can be acquired from the authors upon request.

3.3. Analyzing of Data

Data analysis techniques include descriptive statistical analysis and inferential statistical analysis with SEM analysis and analysis of direct and indirect influences. Data analysis includes instrument validity tests, Pearson correlation tests, descriptive statistics, the goodness of fit model, and path analyses. The data processing used Lisrel version 8.70, SPSS Statistics software version 22, and online Sobel Test.

4. Results and Discussion

4.1. Variable Description

The research subjects surveyed were 66 high and vocational high schools spread across East Java and Central Java, Indonesia, with 820 full-time teachers. A descriptive analysis of the research variables (OJ, OCBI, OCBO, EP) shown in Table 2 was obtained from the questionnaire’s research instrument. Data analysis was presented using a Likert scale with a value (minimum of 1 and maximum of 5), after which the average respondent’s answer was calculated. The interpretation of the average high and low average of respondents’ answers to the studied variables is based on the 0.8 scale range of the research instrument scale 5.
Table 2 shows that the average score of teacher answers remains on the measurement of OJ, and the performance of the teacher is very high (4.35), while the average OCBI is 3.92 (high) and the OCBO is 4.01 (high). Teachers’ self-assessment of their performance results in a very high average score (4.22). These results showed teachers’ high perception of OJ and high teacher OCB, followed by very high EP. These results show that teachers’ perceptions are very high on OJ practices in schools, and teachers’ OCB is high, followed by a performance from very high teachers.
The OJ dimension that has the highest average is a DJ of 4.75 (very high). The DJ dimension is measured by four statements about the rewards that teachers receive, reflecting the effort that teachers put into their work; the remuneration that the teacher receives in accordance with the work completed; the remuneration that the teacher receives reflects the teacher’s contribution to the school; and the rewards that the teacher receives according to the performance that the teacher produces.
The OCBI dimension with the highest average value is altruism, or helping behaviour, with 4.05 (high). Altruism behaviour is measured by three items of statement, namely about the teacher’s willingness to assist in the orientation of new employees or teachers, even though they are not included in the duties of the relevant teacher; the teacher’s willingness to help co-workers who need help without expecting anything in return; and the teacher’s efforts in taking time to help others.
The behaviour that has the highest average on the OCBO dimension is conscientiousness behaviour, with 4.24 (very high), measured by three items of statement, namely about the presence of the teacher’s satisfaction in the heart when the work is completed on time; the completion of any assigned tasks with full responsibility; and whether teachers dare to take any risks to take responsibility and carry out the decisions of joint meetings. Conscientious behavior suggests that teachers voluntarily perform more than school expectations, perform tasks outside of their formal work, take full responsibility for their work, are punctual, and pay attention to the details and quality of tasks without considering the compensation received.
Table 3 shows that the correlation of OJ with OCBI and OCBI is significant at α = 1% (2-tailed) level. Likewise, the correlation between OJ, OCBI, OCBO, and EP is positive and significant at α = level 1% (2-tailed).
The results of the model match test, using five criteria (Table 4), obtained four criteria with good fit results, namely CMIN/DF < 2.00; normed fit index (NFI) is 0.90; comparative fit index (CFI) is 0.90, and goodness-of-fit index (GFI) is 0.90; and one criterion with moderate fit results is RMSEA of 0.14 > 0.08. In short, overall, the feasibility results of the model show that the resulting model of the research equation (direct influence test) is a good fit.
Figure 1 shows that each item has a high loading factor in measuring its latent factor; the average has a value above 0.50. This means that the items used are already good at measuring OJ, OCBI, OCBO, and EP constructs. A summary of the test of the direct effect of OJ on OCBI, OCBO, and EP can be seen in Table 5.
In the results of the influence test in Table 5, it can be seen that the calculated t count > 2000 and the p-value < 0.05, so it can be concluded that for the five hypotheses of direct influence proposed: (1) H1, which states that OJ can significantly improve OCBI, is accepted; (2) H2, which states that OJ can significantly improve OCBO, is accepted; (3) H3, stating that OJ can significantly improve EP, is accepted; (4) H4, which suggests that OCBI can significantly improve EP, is accepted; (5) H5, which states that OCBO can significantly improve EP, is accepted.
Testing the role of OCBI and OCBO as a mediation variable refers to [59], where the influence of OJ on both mediating variables is significant, and the influence of both variable mediations on EP is also significant. This means that H6 (OJ has an indirect effect on EP mediating by OCBI) and H7 (OJ has an indirect effect on EP mediating by OCBO) are accepted. Testing the role of OCBI and OCBO mediation is statistically used in the Sobel Test computer calculator (e.g.,, accessed on 21 August 2021) presented in Table 6.
From Table 6, it can be seen that the test results with the Sobel test showed that OCBI and OCBO significantly mediate (t count > 2000 and p-value < 0.05) the influence of OJ on the EP of teachers. The influence of OJ on EP remained significant after the OCBI and OCBO were included in the equation, meaning that the role of OCBI and OCBO was partial mediation [59].

4.2. Discussion

4.2.1. Impact of OJ on OCBI

OJ deals with issues of justice in organizations that are important issues for management and employees. At work, employees often conduct evaluations of equality with other employees and see if employees receive adequate compensation following the contributions made to the organization. OJ is one of the important aspects that can influence employee behavior, such as OCB. This is evidenced by several empirical studies showing that OJ positively affects OCB [45,57,60,61]. The results of this study are in accordance with the statement of [22], which states that the perception of OJ can encourage the emergence of OCB work behavior in employees. This study is a development of some of these empirical studies, which examined the influence of OJ on the dimensions of OCBI, and the test results showed that OJ was able to significantly improve the OCBI of teachers in East Java and Central Java.
Likewise, in the school environment, teachers also perceived the OJ aspects in the school, from the aspects of compensation distribution, procedural decision making, and interactional in the workplace. The results of testing the influence of OJ on OCBI showed a positive and significant influence with an estimated coefficient value of 0.30 at a significance level of 5%. The OCBI in this study consists of the dimensions of courtesy and altruism. The test results reinforced by Table 2 show that the average grade of teachers’ perception of OJ in schools was very high (4.35), as were the teachers’ OCBI average scores were high (3.92). They also indicate that if employees are mistreated, teachers will be less likely to show OCBI.

4.2.2. Impact of OJ on OCBO

The study’s results in Table 5 show that the OJ perceived in teachers can increase OCBO. As illustrated in Table 5, OJ was found to have a significant positive effect on OCBO with an estimated coefficient of 0.25 at of significance level of 5%. This shows that any improvement in OJ in each Likert scale unit can contribute to an OCBO increase of 0.25 Likert scale units. OJ describes the individual or group perceptions of the fairness of their behavior from an organization and their behavioral reactions to that perception. Table 2 shows that teachers’ perceptions of OJ practices in schools that include distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice are very high, and teachers’ answers to the OCBO dimension, which summarizes the dimensions of consciousness, sportsmanship, and civic virtue, have a high average (4.01). In other words, schools that can realize OJ well tend to encourage teachers to display extra behaviors, such as conscientiousness, sportsmanship, and civic virtue. The study by [6] showed a significant positive influence of school OJ on OCB. The results of this study are a development of several previous empirical studies that show the influence of OJ on OCB [45,57,60,61].
Every school leader wants every teacher to provide optimal service to teaching, guiding students, and displaying OCBO in the school environment. This can be realized through one of the practices of OJ in the school environment. The results of the study show that the high perception of teachers towards OJ practices in schools can encourage the emergence of OCBO, and with the presence of high OCBO, it is hoped that teachers can be more integrated with their work environment and perform work that is beneficial to the progress of the school voluntarily, although it is not their main task.

4.2.3. Impact of OJ on EP

Justice takes center stage for all parties dealing with humanists, because people are sensitive to how people behave towards justice. Justice can be defined as how rewards and punishments are distributed collectively, incorporating social relationships and managing those relationships with one another. Employees’ perception of justice is referred to as OJ. OJ can be a kind of fulfillment in all activities, behaviors, and individual inclinations [62]. OJ is an excellent predictor for some attitudes and behaviors in the workplace, such as organizational commitment and performance-related behaviors [63]. As illustrated in Table 5, OJ could significantly improve teacher performance with an estimated coefficient of 0.12 at a significance level of 5%. As found from this study, OJ, consisting of three aspects, namely DJ, PJ, and IJ, has a significant positive impact on EP. This can also be interpreted to mean that the implementation of DJ, PJ, and IJ so far can increase the perception of justice of teachers positively, and as a result, teachers have high performance in their duties as educators and other responsibilities given by the leadership to the teachers.
The results of this empirical study are in line with some of the results of previous empirical studies, which showed that good OJ practices could improve EP [23,24,30,50]. These findings align with several previous studies by [6,48] which show that OJ has a significant positive impact on teacher performance. Improve performance also needs to be supported by the practice of justice in the organization. This means that OJ in schools is needed to encourage the maximum performance of teachers, and any educational organization requires high-performing teachers to guarantee the quality of education.

4.2.4. Impact of OCBI on EP

OCB is an important concept closely related to actual work performed on the one hand and individual factors on the other. OCB reflects behavior patterns at the individual level that may translate into work outcomes at the individual (OCBI) and organizational levels (OCBO). OCBI can be defined as an antecedent in an employee’s job performance. Table 5 shows that the OCBI can significantly improve teachers’ performance with an influence coefficient of 0.218 at a significance level of 5%. The results of this study are a new contribution to the study of the influence of the OCBI dimension on EP, with teachers in East Java and Central Java, Indonesia, as the research object. It can be concluded that this dimension contributes to improving the performance of individual teachers and coworkers. These results support Somech and Drach-Zahavy [64], who discovered that collective efficacy was positively related only to OCB towards the team. Altruism behavior has an impact on increasing coworkers’ productivity because it can accelerate the completion of tasks so that the performance of coworkers increases. The findings support [58], who found that for organizations and groups, OCB enhances cooperative behavior, efficiency, and productivity.
The altruism dimension measures OCBI from the perspective of voluntary behaviour, and teachers help co-workers who experience difficulties related to organizational work and personal problems. Altruism, or helping behaviour among fellow organization members who need help solving job-related and personal problems, is placed second. Altruism allows teachers to go beyond job requirements and results in the completion of challenging assignments. In addition, through altruism, teachers can share their knowledge and expertise with other teachers and help fellow teachers with workplace problems. The altruism dimension measures the OCBI from the perspective of voluntary behaviour, and in this case, the teacher willingly helps colleagues who are experiencing difficulties related to the work of the organization and personal problems. This behaviour can improve the performance of teachers individually. Altruism behaviour impacts increasing co-workers’ productivity because it can accelerate the completion of tasks so that the performance of co-workers increases. The courtesy dimension measures the behaviour of teachers in school activities and fosters good relationships with co-workers and other school members to avoid interpersonal problems. In addition to positively affecting the success of individuals and co-workers, courtesy also indirectly impacts group and organizational performance. This behaviour helps save organizational resources and increases spirit, morale, and cohesiveness, minimizing group conflict. Teachers disclosing their participation in decision-making processes in their school could be asked to display more OCB expressed in activities outside their current position expectations [65].

4.2.5. Impact of OCBO on EP

Ref. [66] identified the need for OCB, which is essential to steer a human resource’s attitude to work better in any industry. Table 5 shows that the OCBO, which teachers have, can significantly improve teachers’ performance with an influence coefficient of 0.25 at a significance level of 5%. The findings of this analysis support some of the previous studies, such as [54,55,67,68,69,70], which show that OCB as a whole can significantly improve EP. The results of this study explore the results of empirical studies conducted by [44,71] who showed that OCB had a positive effect on teacher performance.
The OCBO of teachers describes various individual actions that go beyond their formal duties, primarily for the school’s good and driven by personal goals. Study findings suggest that improving teacher performance in schools requires increased OCBO. OCBO such as (1) the teachers’ behaviour to voluntarily try and perform beyond the minimum standard without considering the reward received (conscientiousness); (2) the teachers’ behaviour of being highly tolerant of less-than-ideal conditions or work environments without complaint (sportsmanship); and (3) the teachers’ behaviour towards voluntarily participating in supporting organizational functions and being proactive towards the organization as a whole (civic virtue). In this study, the attitude of showing loyalty and not complaining in order to survive in an institution and behaving so as to not break the rules greatly affect teachers’ performance. Table 2 shows that the average performance of teachers is very high (4.35). This is indicated due to the high average grade of high teacher OCBO (4.01). These findings support Belogolovsky and Somech’s (2010) survey of principals, teachers, and parents, suggesting that teachers generally have high OCB levels. This behaviour is also considered beneficial to schools rather than parent behaviour. Meanwhile, parents identify a high teacher OCB as desirable behaviour for students. This means that respondents generally strongly agree or positively respond to the OCBO measurement indicator because OCBO is an important supporting factor for teachers to improve their performance. Teachers eager to carry out organizational tasks will also produce optimal results.
The first measurement of OCBO is conscientiousness, the OCB dimension regarding voluntary behaviour in creating things, full responsibility for completing work on time, and daring to take risks to implement organizational decisions. Conscientiousness is a general propensity to be hard-working, responsible, and trustworthy [72]. Conscientiousness refers to fulfilling employees’ work tasks beyond the minimum job requirements [73]. Podsakoff et al. [58] argued that attentive workers are more likely to maintain a high level of reliable work output, reducing work unit performance variability. This result is in line with Mathis and Jackson’s [1] opinion that in addition to being influenced by organizational support, individual performance is also determined by individual factors, namely competence and effort. The findings of this study also support the opinion of Abiante [74] that organizational citizenship activity has been established to enable workers to apply their full expertise, talents, and strengths to the workplace. The second measurement of the OCBO is civic virtue. The study results show that teachers have shown efforts to take responsibility for school life and are trying to contribute to the school’s growth to positively impact performance (teachers and schools). The third measurement of OCBO is sportsmanship. These results indicate that teachers show a tolerant attitude towards conditions and school policies that are not as expected without complaining, but try to show a positive attitude so that the school climate becomes positive. In addition, teachers who tend to show high OCB in sportsmanship are involved in extra roles deemed beneficial to the organization. Teachers seem to encourage co-workers when they experience decreased motivation. This behaviour contributes positively to improving teacher performance and indirectly affects school performance in education services

4.2.6. The Role of OCBI as a Mediator of the Influence of OJ on EP

Based on the results of the path analysis and Sobel test (Table 6), it was shown that OCBI is a partial mediation of the influence of OJ on EP. Referring to Baron & Kenny [59] if the independent variable (in this study OJ) had a direct significant impact on the dependent variable (in this study EP) and also had a significant impact on the mediator (in this study OCBI and OCBO), which had a significant impact on the dependent variable (EP), this is known as the case of partial mediation. The meaning of the role of OCBI partial mediation on the impact of OJ on teacher EPs is that OJ can have a direct impact on teacher performance, but teacher performance can also be influenced by OCBI which is a positive consequence of OJ's perception from teachers. The results of this study are a development of several previous research results that show empirical evidence about the impact of OJ directly affecting EP, and other studies show that the influence of OJ has an indirect effect on EP through OCB as a mediator. OJ plays an important role in shaping the behavior of individuals, especially the OCB and OCB, which have a significant positive impact on EP [50,54,55,67,68,69,70,74], while in other conditions, OJ can also have an impact on EP [23,24,30,50] Teachers who feel they are being treated fairly will be motivated to improve their performance when they exhibit high courtesy and altruistic behavior. This indicates that OJ can directly impact the EP of teachers; on the other hand, the organization can affect OCBI, further impacting the EP of teachers. The results of this study are a development of several previous studies, such as those of [6,48], showing the indirect influence of OJ on EP of teachers with OCB as mediation.

4.2.7. The Role of OCBO as a Mediator of the Influence of OJ on EP

Hypothesis testing results show that OCBO partially mediates the influence of OJ on EP (Table 5 and Table 6). OCBO partially mediates the influence of OJ on teachers’ performance, meaning that teachers’ perceptions of OJ can directly and indirectly impact teachers’ performance in schools, with OCBO as a mediator. This result is in line with the results of previous studies that OJ can improve the performance of individuals and groups of employees in the organization where they work [50,75]; on the other hand, OJ proved to be an important variable that plays a role in improving the performance of employees of an organization [23]. OCBO is voluntary and handpicked by employees who contribute to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. This can explain factually that the perception of justice by teachers has a positive and vital impact on improving the achievement of performance through OCBO as mediation. However, on the other hand, the perception of the OJ of teachers can directly impact teachers’ performance.
The results of this study are a development of previous research [6] which also found a direct and indirect influence of OJ on EP of teachers with OCB as mediation. High OCBO in employees smoothens social interaction between colleagues, keeps conflicts to a minimum, and increases efficiency. This condition can certainly motivate teachers to complete tasks well to maximize their performance. Meanwhile, the results of a study by [24] on public organizations in Pakistan showed that justice is positively associated with EP with the role of emotional intelligence mediation.

5. Conclusions and Implications

5.1. Conclusions

The results of the testing of the seven hypotheses proposed show that: (1) OJ can significantly improve OCBI; (2) OJ can significantly improve OCBO; (3) OJ was found to have a significant positive effect on EP; (4) OCBI can significantly improve EP; (5) OCBO can significantly improve EP; (6) OCBI partially mediates the influence of OJ on EP; (7) OCBO partially mediates the influence of OJ on EP. The results of this study provide a new discourse for educational organizations, that organizational justice practices, which include organizational justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice directly and indirectly, can improve teachers’ performance with two dimensions of OCB, namely OCBI and OCBO as mediators.

5.2. Implications

School administrators, school leaders, and organizational administrators, in general, need to understand the importance of DJ, PJ, and IJ to improve the performance of their employees. In relation to OJ practices, school principals or organizational managers, in general, must strive to develop a planned and systematic strategy so that employees’ perceptions of OJ in the workplace further motivate them to carry out their duties as well as possible.
The recommendation given to the principal as school management is to strive for and to improve the perception of fairness in employees as a priority so that teachers have a high commitment to achieving individual performance that supports the achievement of school performance. Attention to organizational fairness can impact improving the effectiveness and efficiency of school organizations through OCBI and OCBO. Management can improve employee OJ’s perception by providing incentives or performance benefits in accordance with the burdens and responsibilities of work and employee performance.
Another effort that management can provide is the provision of employee career paths by increasing the provision of opportunities to improve knowledge and skills to support work competence regardless of age or length of work. This is a form of management’s efforts to improve the OCB of employees through increasing employee perceptions of OJ, which can also impact employee performance and organizational performance.
Recommendations given to teachers or employees in general, in addition to having to carry out their formal roles (in roles) optimally, need to increase the level of willingness of teachers or employees, in general, to voluntarily perform additional roles when the organization needs assistance for the betterment of the organization.

6. Limitations and Future Development of Research

6.1. Limitations

The sample of this study only took a sample of 820 permanent teachers from 66 senior high schools and vocational high schools who were partners of the research team, so it could not reflect the overall picture of teachers’ perceptions of organizational justice and teacher OCB in senior high schools and vocational high schools throughout Indonesia. Research on OJ, OCB, and EP is an important aspect of studying organizational behavior science. In measuring EP (which in this study is teacher performance), it is assessed through self-assessment of the achievement of work competencies in carrying out their work roles, which can be seen in knowledge and skills or ability in doing work. In addition, in the assessment of teacher performance, researchers still find difficulties in finding references that can clearly describe the performance as an output or process.

6.2. Future Developments in Research

For further research, it is expected that: (1) research will be conducted by expanding the research area outside East Java Province and Central Java Province so that the results can represent findings that can be generalized better in schools in East Java Province and Central Java Province; (2) meta-analysis can be considered to increase the generalizability of the research results, by taking other provinces in Indonesia as research areas; (3) the latest reference assessments will be conducted on teacher performance and involving leaders or students in assessing teacher performance so that the quality of further research results can be improved. For future research, it is recommended to take into account other factors that also affect the performance of the teachers and the performance of the school, such as the commitment of teachers [76]; empowering leadership [77]; organizational innovation [78]; work commitment [79]; teachers leadership and trust [71]; and organizational agility [80]. For future research, other factors that can improve OCB can be reviewed, such as intangible assets and work engagement [12], job crafting [81] quality of work life [82], intrinsic motivation, and affective commitment [83].

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, Y.B.H. and V.A.S.; methodology, V.A.S.; software, Y.B.H. and V.A.S.; validation, Y.B.H. and V.A.S.; formal analysis, Y.B.H.; investigation, V.A.S.; resources, Y.B.H.; data curation, Y.B.H. and V.A.S.; writing—original draft preparation, Y.B.H. and V.A.S.; writing—review and editing, Y.B.H.; visualization, V.A.S.; supervision, Y.B.H.; project administration, V.A.S.; funding acquisition, Y.B.H. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

All the data have been included in the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. The direct influence of independent variables on mediating variables and dependent variables. * Significant, p-value < 0.05.
Figure 1. The direct influence of independent variables on mediating variables and dependent variables. * Significant, p-value < 0.05.
Sustainability 14 13322 g001
Table 1. Variable operational definition and measurement.
Table 1. Variable operational definition and measurement.
VariableOperational DefinitionMeasurement Indicators
OJOJ can be interpreted as teachers’ perception or feeling treated fairly in the workplace and school organization reflected in distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.
DJ: justice that employees feel about the results received by employees;
PJ: conditions where employees consider that procedures become fairer when employees feel involved in decision-making;
IJ: conditions in which employees are treated with respect and dignity, and the giving of an honest explanation of every decision.
OCBThe behavior of a teacher who exceeds the job description is voluntary, not directly or explicitly valued, and overall improves school performance. OCB is grouped into two dimensions, namely OCBI and OCBO.OCBI:
Altruism involves helping other organizational members with relevant tasks or problems;
Courtesy refers to efforts to prevent work-related problems with others.
Conscientiousness refers to discretionary behavior that goes beyond minimum-role requirements;
Sportsmanship involves tolerance related behaviors in less-than-desirable situations to avoid complaints being made;
Civic Virtue indicates a willingness to participate responsibly in the life of the organization [58].
EPDescribes teacher competencies in preparing lesson plans, implementing learning strategies, creating a learning culture environment, developing professional communication, and evaluating learning.
Learning plans;
Implementing learning strategies;
Creating a learning culture environment;
Developing professional communication.
OJ can be interpreted as teachers’ perception or feeling of being treated fairly in the workplace and school organization reflected in distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. OCB is defined as the behaviour of an employee (in this case, the teacher) that exceeds the job description, is voluntary, is not valued directly or explicitly, and overall improves school performance; OCB is grouped into two dimensions: OCBI and OCBO. OCBI is measured by altruism and courtesy, while OCBO is measured by conscientiousness, sportsmanship, and civic virtue. EP, in this case, is the performance of teachers, described as teacher performance in developing learning plans, implementing learning strategies, creating a learning culture environment, developing professional communication, and evaluating learning.
Table 2. Research variable mean.
Table 2. Research variable mean.
OJ4.36Very High
DJ4.75Very High
IJ4.35Very High
Conscientiousness4.24Very High
Civic Virtue3.91High
EP4.22Very High
Table 3. Pearson correlation.
Table 3. Pearson correlation.
OJ0.222 **0.218 **0.303 **
OCBO 0.623 **0.493 **
OCBI 0.440 **
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 4. Model fit index summary (goodness-of-fit model).
Table 4. Model fit index summary (goodness-of-fit model).
CMIN/DF0.55≤2.00Good fit
GFI0.91≥0.90Good fit
RMSEA0.140.05 ≤ RMSEA ≤ 0.08Moderate fit
CFI0.90≥0.90Good fit
NFI0.90≥0.90Good fit
Table 5. Results of regression analysis.
Table 5. Results of regression analysis.
OJ → OCBI0.307.042.0000.043H1, accepted
OJ → OCBO0.255.632.0000.044H2, accepted
OJ → EP0.122.972.0000.042H3, accepted
OCBI → EP0.245.012.0000.048H4, accepted
OCBO → EP0.459.852.0000.046H5, accepted
Table 6. The results of the mediation influence with Sobel test.
Table 6. The results of the mediation influence with Sobel test.
PathTest StatisticStd. Errorp-ValueDescription
OJ → OCBI → EP4.2350.0080.000H6, accepted
OJ → OCBO → EP5.3540.0110.000H7, accepted
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Hermanto, Y.B.; Srimulyani, V.A. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance Using Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior as Mediation. Sustainability 2022, 14, 13322.

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Hermanto YB, Srimulyani VA. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance Using Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior as Mediation. Sustainability. 2022; 14(20):13322.

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Hermanto, Yustinus Budi, and Veronika Agustini Srimulyani. 2022. "The Effects of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance Using Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior as Mediation" Sustainability 14, no. 20: 13322.

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