The Effects of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance Using Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior as Mediation
2. Literature Review and Hypothesis Development
2.1. Dynamic Capabilities Theory
2.5. Hypothesis Development
2.5.1. The Influence of OJ on the Dimensions of OCB
2.5.2. The Influence of OJ on EP
2.5.3. The Influence of OCB Dimensions on EP
2.5.4. The Role of OCB Dimension Mediation on the Influence of OJ on EP
3. Materials and Methods
3.2. Sample and Data Collection
3.3. Analyzing of Data
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Variable Description
4.2.1. Impact of OJ on OCBI
4.2.2. Impact of OJ on OCBO
4.2.3. Impact of OJ on EP
4.2.4. Impact of OCBI on EP
4.2.5. Impact of OCBO on EP
4.2.6. The Role of OCBI as a Mediator of the Influence of OJ on EP
4.2.7. The Role of OCBO as a Mediator of the Influence of OJ on EP
5. Conclusions and Implications
6. Limitations and Future Development of Research
6.2. Future Developments in Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Mathis, R.L.; Jackson, J.H. Human Resource Management, 13th ed.; South-Western College Publishing: Cincinnati, OH, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Duan, X.; Du, X.; Yu, K. School culture and school effectiveness: The mediating effect of teachers’ job satisfaction. Int. J. Learn. Teach. Educ. Res. 2018, 17, 15–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Widodo, W.; Yusuf, F.A. The Effect of Organizational Citizenship and Visionary Leadership on Contextual Performance: A Case Study in Indonesia. J. Asian Financ. Econ. Bus. 2021, 8, 377–386. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aslam, R. Investigating the relationship of OCB with job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turn over intention. Int. J. Econ. Manag. Sci. 2012, 1, 90–100. Available online: https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access-pdfs (accessed on 17 August 2020).
- Hamid, S.R.A.; Hassan, S.S.; Ismail, N.A. Teaching quality and performance among experienced teachers in Malaysia. Aust. J. Teach. Educ. 2012, 27, 85–103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Chandrawaty, C.; Widodo, W. Investigating OCB’s Mediating Effect of School Organizational Justice on Teachers’ Performance: Evidence from Indonesia. East Afr. Sch. J. Educ. Humanit. Lit. 2021, 4, 167–172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jabeen, R.; Khan, R.; Ellahi, A.; Begum, S. Investigating the Impact of Performance Appraisal Justice on Job Performance and Ocb of Employees: Path Through Work Engagement. Humanit. Soc. Sci. Rev. 2021, 9, 315–325. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhu, Y. Individual behavior: In-role and extra-role. Int. J. Bus. Adm. 2013, 4, 23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Allen, T.D.; Rush, M.C. The effects of organizational citizenship behavior on performance judgments: A field study and a laboratory experiment. J. Appl. Psychol. 1998, 83, 247–260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hakim, W.; Nimran, U.; Haerani, S.; Alam, S. The antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and their effect on performance: Study on Public University in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. J. Bus. Manag. 2014, 16, 5–13. Available online: https://iosrjournals.org (accessed on 8 July 2020).
- Alkahtani, A. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and Rewards. Int. Bus. Res. 2015, 8, 210–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tefera, C.A.; Hunsaker, W.D. Intangible assets and organizational citizenship behavior: A conceptual model. Heliyon 2020, 6, e04497. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Robbins, S.P.; Judge, T.A. Organizational Behavior; Person Education Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Susanty, W.S. The Effect of Motivation and Job Satisfaction through Orgaizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) on the Performance of State School Teachers, Murung Pudak District, Tabalong Regency. J. Adv. Educ. Philos. 2022, 6, 96–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Widodo, W.; Sulistiasih, S. Vitalizing organizational justice in mediating effect of good corporate governance on teacher’s organizational citizenship behavior. J. Konseling Dan Pendidik. 2021, 9, 164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lavy, S. Daily Dynamics of Teachers’ Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Social and Emotional Antecedents and Outcomes. Front. Psychol. 2019, 10, 2863. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ibarra, H. Working Identity: Unconventional Strategies for Reinventing Your Career; Harvard Business Press: Brighton, MA, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Aleksandrovich, A. Extra-role performance behavior of teachers: The role of identification with the team, of experience and of the school as an educational organization. Growth 2014, 8, 253–269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chelagat, L.J.; Chepkwony, P.K.; Kemboi, A. Effect of organizational citizenship behavior on employee performance in banking sector, Nairobi County, Kenya. Int. J. Bus. Humanit. Technol. 2015, 5, 55–61. Available online: http://www.ijbhtnet.com/journals (accessed on 27 July 2020).
- Van Dyne, L.; Lepine, J.A. Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Acad. Manag. J. 1998, 41, 108–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dipaola, M.; Tschannen-Moran, M. Organizational citizenship behavior in schools and its relationship to school climate. J. Sch. Leadersh. 2001, 11, 424–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Varihanna, H.H.; Nizam, A. Effects of Organizational Trust and Justice on Job Satisfaction and their Consequences on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. East Afr. Sch. J. Econ. Bus. Manag. 2020, 3, 389–395. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Iqbal, M.Z.; Rehan, M.; Fatima, A.; Nawab, S. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance in Public Sector Organization of Pakistan. Int. J. Econ. Manag. Sci. 2017, 6, 1000431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Paracha, A.T.; Malik, S.; Azeem, M.F.; Yasmin, R. Impact of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence: An Analysis of Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan. Glob. Dev. Humanit. Educ. Civiliz. 2020, 11, 1–20. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication (accessed on 8 July 2020).
- Teece, D.J.; Pisano, G.; Shuen, A. Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management. Strateg. Manag. J. 1997, 18, 509–533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mrugalska, B.; Ahmed, J. Organizational agility in industry 4.0: A-systematic literature review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cropanzano, R.; Bowen, D.E.; Gilliland, S.W. The management of organizational justice. Acad. Manag. Perspect. 2007, 21, 34–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rusbadrol, N.; Panatik, S.A.; Sarip, A.; Fakhruddin, F.M. Effects of Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Employee Turnover Intention. Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci. 2021, 11, 80–91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rahman, H.A.; Karim, D.N. Organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of work engagement. Heliyon 2022, 8, e09450. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yean, T.F.; Yusof, A.A. Organizational Justice: A Conceptual Discussion. Procedia-Soc. Behav. Sci. 2016, 219, 798–803. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Srivastava, U.R. Multiple Dimensions of Organizational Justice and Work-Related Outcomes among Health-Care Professionals. Am. J. Ind. Bus. Manag. 2015, 5, 666–685. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ali, S.H.B. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Employee Intrinsic and Extrinsic Performance: A Case Study in Kota Kinabalu Polytechnic, Malaysia. Kuwait Chapter Arab. J. Bus. Manag. Rev. 2016, 5, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Borman, W.C. The concept of organizational citizenship. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2004, 13, 238–241. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Newland, S.J. Organizational Citizenship Behavior-Individual or Organizational Citizenship Behavior-Organization: Does the Underlying Motive MATTER? Master’s Thesis, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA, May 2012. Available online: http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses/ (accessed on 2 July 2020).
- Nur, A.H. The Effect of Remuneration, Job Satisfaction and OCB on the Employee Performance. Sci. J. Bus. Manag. 2016, 4, 212. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- LePine, J.A.; Erez, A.; Johnson, D.E. The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and meta-analysis. J. Appl. Psychol. 2002, 87, 52–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- David, E.M.; Witt, L.A. The Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and General Mental Ability on Task Performance. Rom. J. Appl. Psychol. 2009, 11, 7–13. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ (accessed on 7 July 2020).
- Lie, A. The Effects of Organizational Citizenship Behavior and In-Role Behavior on Workplace Deviance within a Company; A Thesis Presented to the University Honors Program; California State University: Long Beach, CA, USA, 2018; Available online: https://scholarworks.calstate.edu/downloads/2v23vx11t?locale=en (accessed on 7 July 2020).
- Mohd, N.A.; Lay, K.S. Organizational Justice as an Antecedent of Job Performance. Gadjah Mada Int. J. Bus. 2007, 9, 335–353. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Daft, R.L. Essential Organization Theory and Design; Licensed to: iChapters User (Issue January); Thomson Learning, Inc.: Mason, OH, USA, 2016; Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication (accessed on 27 July 2020).
- Kristian, B.; Ferijani, A. The Effect of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance with OCB as the Intervening Variables. J. Manag. Bus. Environ. JMBE 2020, 2, 1. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J. Measuring Individual Work Performance-Identifying and Selecting Indicators. Work J. Prev. Assess. Rehabil. 2013, 45, 62–81. [Google Scholar]
- Sayin, S.D.; Arslan, H. Determining the Criteria Identifying Teacher Performance through Multiple Indicators. Eur. Sci. J. ESJ 2017, 13, 19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Chandra, J.A.; Qomariah, N. Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Leadership, Individual Characteristics and Competence on Teacher Performance. J. Manaj. Dan Bisnis Indones. 2021, 6, 244–257. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chien, C.Y. Verifying the effects of organizational justice and work values upon organizational performance: Using organizational citizenship behavior as the dual mediator. Afr. J. Bus. Manag. 2013, 7, 2195–2205. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fiaz, M.; Rasool, W.; Ikram, A.; Rehman, N. Organizational Justice and Employees’ Performance: A Study of an Emerging Economy. Hum. Syst. Manag. 2021, 4, 395–406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Oktavia, V.; Ali, A.; Kadarningsih, A. The Role of OCB as a Mediator in Improving Employees Performance. Benefit J. Manaj. Dan Bisnis 2020, 5, 123–134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sopiah, S.; Sangadji, E.M.; Narmaditya, B.S. The impact of organizational justice, self-efficacy and teachers performance: The mediating role of internal motivation. Pedagogika 2021, 141, 79–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zeb, A.; Rehman, F.U.; Arsalan, Y.; Khan, M.U. Does organizational justice enhance job performance through high-performance human resource practices? WPOM-Work. Pap. Oper. Manag. 2021, 12, 16–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ismail, S.; Iqbal, Z.; Adeel, M. Impact of Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Employees Performance. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Stud. 2018, 8, 187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fred, L. Organizational Behavior, 12th ed.; McGraw-Hill Irwin: New York, NY, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Dachner, A.M.; Ellingson, J.E.; Tews, M.J. Clarifying the association between personality and interpersonal citizenship behavior. SAM Adv. Manag. J. 2017, 82, 36–47. [Google Scholar]
- Vigoda-Gadot, E.; Beeri, I.; Birman-Shemesh, T.; Somech, A. Group-level organizational citizenship behavior in the education system: A scale reconstruction and validation. Educ. Adm. Q. 2007, 3, 462–493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hermanto, Y.B.; Srimulyani, V.A. The role of servant leadership and work engagement in improving extra-role behaviour and teacher performance. Int. J. Product. Qual. Manag. 2022, 35, 57–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wei, Y.-C. The benefits of organizational citizenship behavior for job performance and the moderating role of human capital. Int. J. Bus. Manag. 2014, 9, 87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Indartono, S.; Faraz, N.J. The role of commitment on the effect of public workers’ OCBO on in-role performance. Adm. Manag. Public 2019, 32, 108–119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gan, J.L.; Yusof, H.M. Does organizational justice influence organizational citizenship behavior among engineers? A conceptual paper. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, Paris, France, 26–27 July 2018; pp. 2227–2234. Available online: http://www.ieomsociey.org (accessed on 7 July 2020).
- Podsakoff, P.M.; MacKenzie, S.B.; Paine, J.B.; Bachrach, D.G. Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. J. Manag. 2000, 26, 513–563. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baron, R.M.; Kenny, D.A. The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 1986, 51, 1173–1182. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rauf, A.; Hansiya, F. Perception of organizational justice as a predictor of organizational citizenship behavior: An empirical study at schools in Sri Lanka. Eur. J. Bus. Manag. 2014, 6, 124–130. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication (accessed on 8 July 2020).
- Efanga, S.I.; Akpan, G.M. The relationships between organizational justice and teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviour in secondary schools in Akwa-Iibom state, Nigeria. Asian J. Manag. Sci. Educ. 2015, 4, 70–79. Available online: http://www.ajmse.leena-luna.co.jp (accessed on 7 July 2020).
- Khan, C.B.A.; Ahmed, R. Organizational Culture and Entrepreneurial Orientation: Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Leadership. Bus. Econ. Rev. 2019, 11, 149–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Colquitt, J.A.; Conlon, D.E.; Wesson, M.J.; Porter, C.O.L.H.; Ng, K.Y. Justice at the Millennium: A Meta-Analytic Review of 25 Years of Organizational Justice Research. J. Appl. Psychol. 2001, 86, 425–445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Somech, A.; Drach-Zahavy, A. Understanding extra-role behavior in schools: The relationships between job satisfaction, sense of efficacy, and teachers’ extra-role behavior. Teach. Teach. Educ. 2000, 16, 649–659. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bogler, R.; Somech, A. Influence of teacher empowerment on teachers’ organizational commitment, professional commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in schools. Teach. Teach. Educ. 2004, 20, 277–289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Niveditha, M.; Sujatha, S. The Impact of Organizational Structure and Leadership Effectiveness on Organizational Citizenship Behavior-A Comparative Study in Indian Health and Education Sectors. J. Crit. Rev. 2020, 7, 167–172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Al-Mahasneh, M. The impact of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Job Performance at Greater Amman Municipality. Eur. J. Bus. Manag. 2015, 7, 108–118. Available online: https://www.iiste.org/Journals/ (accessed on 27 July 2020).
- Basu, E.; Pradhan, R.K.; Tewari, H.R. Impact of organizational citizenship behavior on job performance in Indian healthcare industries: The mediating role of social capital. Int. J. Product. Perform. Manag. 2017, 66, 780–796. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Purwantoro, H.; Bagyo, Y. Citizenship organizational behavior ability to increase the effect of organizational climate, work motivation, and organizational justice on employee performance. Manag. Econ. J. MEC-J. 2019, 3, 88–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Margahana, H.; Saputra, W.E.; Harlofida, D. The Effect of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) on the Increasing Spirit of Paramedic Work of Community Health Center in East Oku District. JHSS J. Humanit. Soc. Stud. 2020, 4, 176–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rachmah, N.; Putrawan, I.M. Teachers Leadership and Trust: Its Effect on Teachers Performance. Int. J. Sci. Res. Publ. 2018, 8, 1–5. Available online: https://www.ijsrp.org/ (accessed on 8 July 2020).
- Bowling, N.A. Effects of job satisfaction and conscientiousness on extra-role behaviors. J. Bus. Psychol. 2010, 25, 119–130. Available online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40605750 (accessed on 1 August 2020). [CrossRef]
- Owen, F.A.; Pappalardo Salvatore, J.; Sale, C.A. Organizational citizenship behaviour: Proposal for a new dimension in counsellor education. Can. J. Couns. Psychother. 2000, 34, 2. Available online: https://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/article/view/58641 (accessed on 8 July 2020).
- Dirbeba, D.D. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Employees’ Performance Assessment: The Case of Dire Dawa University. Am. J. Theor. Appl. Bus. 2018, 4, 15–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dearsi, M.; Ratnawati, I. The Effect of Organizational Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behavior with Job Satisfaction as a Mediation Variable (Study on Employees of PT Jasamarga Ngawi Kertasono). Bp. Int. Res. Crit. Inst.-J. BIRCI-J. 2021, 5, 17758–17767. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Siri, A.; Supartha, I.W.G.; Sukaatmadja, I.P.G.; Rahyuda, A.G. Does teacher competence and commitment improve teacher’s professionalism. Cogent Bus. Manag. 2020, 7, 1781993. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Faulks, B.; Song, Y.; Waiganjo, M.; Obrenovic, B.; Godinic, D. Impact of empowering leadership, innovative work, and organizational learning readiness on sustainable economic performance: An empirical study of companies in russia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability 2021, 13, 12465. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Imani, S.; Foroudi, P.; Seyyedamiri, N.; Dehghani, N. Improving employees’ performance through internal marketing and organizational learning: Mediating role of organizational innovation in an emerging market. Cogent Bus. Manag. 2020, 7, 1762963. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Martini, I.A.O.; Supriyadinata, A.A.N.E.; Sutrisni, K.E.; Sarmawa, I.W.G. The dimensions of competency on worker performance mediated by work commitment. Cogent Bus. Manag. 2020, 7, 1794677. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saha, N.; Gregar, A.; Saha, P. Organizational agility and HRM strategy: Do they really enhance firms’ competitiveness? Int. J. Organ. Leadersh. 2017, 6, 323–334. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shusha, A. The Effects of Job Crafting on Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Evidence from Egyptian Medical Centers. Int. Bus. Res. 2014, 7, 140–149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Askafi, E.; Chandrarin, G.; Assih, P.; Respati, H. Organizational Citizenship Behavior as a Way to Improve Performance:Evidence from Muslim Teachers in Indonesia. Eur. J. Bus. Manag. 2017, 9, 36–44. Available online: https://www.iiste.org/Journals (accessed on 17 August 2020).
- Battistelli, A.; Galletta, M.; Portoghese, I.; Pohl, S.; Odoardi, C. Promoting orfganizational citizenship behaviors: The mediating role of intrinsic work motivation. Trav. Hum. 2013, 3, 205–226. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Variable||Operational Definition||Measurement Indicators|
|OJ||OJ can be interpreted as teachers’ perception or feeling treated fairly in the workplace and school organization reflected in distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.|
|OCB||The behavior of a teacher who exceeds the job description is voluntary, not directly or explicitly valued, and overall improves school performance. OCB is grouped into two dimensions, namely OCBI and OCBO.||OCBI:|
|EP||Describes teacher competencies in preparing lesson plans, implementing learning strategies, creating a learning culture environment, developing professional communication, and evaluating learning.|
|OJ||0.222 **||0.218 **||0.303 **|
|OCBO||0.623 **||0.493 **|
|RMSEA||0.14||0.05 ≤ RMSEA ≤ 0.08||Moderate fit|
|OJ → OCBI||0.30||7.04||2.000||0.043||H1, accepted|
|OJ → OCBO||0.25||5.63||2.000||0.044||H2, accepted|
|OJ → EP||0.12||2.97||2.000||0.042||H3, accepted|
|OCBI → EP||0.24||5.01||2.000||0.048||H4, accepted|
|OCBO → EP||0.45||9.85||2.000||0.046||H5, accepted|
|Path||Test Statistic||Std. Error||p-Value||Description|
|OJ → OCBI → EP||4.235||0.008||0.000||H6, accepted|
|OJ → OCBO → EP||5.354||0.011||0.000||H7, accepted|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Hermanto, Y.B.; Srimulyani, V.A. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance Using Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior as Mediation. Sustainability 2022, 14, 13322. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013322
Hermanto YB, Srimulyani VA. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance Using Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior as Mediation. Sustainability. 2022; 14(20):13322. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013322Chicago/Turabian Style
Hermanto, Yustinus Budi, and Veronika Agustini Srimulyani. 2022. "The Effects of Organizational Justice on Employee Performance Using Dimension of Organizational Citizenship Behavior as Mediation" Sustainability 14, no. 20: 13322. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013322