Prospective Life Cycle Costing of Electricity Generation from Municipal Solid Waste in Nigeria
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Lagos and Abuja
2.2.1. Goal and Scope Definition and Functional Unit
2.2.2. Inventory Analysis
2.2.3. Population and MSW Growth and Electricity Generation Potential
- A methane correction factor (MCF) of 0.6 was employed as the landfills in Lagos and Abuja were considered to be unmanaged.
- The fraction of degradable organic carbon dissimilated (DOCF) was taken to be 0.77.
- The oxidation factor (OX) was assumed to be zero.
- The fraction of MSW disposed at landfill (MSWF) was taken to be 100%.
- The fraction by volume of CH4 in landfill gas (F) was assumed to be 50%.
- Recovered methane (R) was assumed to be zero.
2.2.4. Economic Evaluation of WtE Systems
2.2.5. Cost Structure for WtE Systems
- Good quality data are required for proper decision-making as the reliability of feasibility studies can be affected by lack and/or uncertainties of local data.
- The employment of economies of scale for WTE facilities whereby decreasing capital and operating costs are reduced by increasing plant capacity.
- The establishment of effective legislative and institutional frameworks involving relevant stakeholders should be made to promote the implementation of WTE systems and encourage private sector participation.
- For WtE systems such as AD, more flexible criteria are required regarding the use of fertilizers originating from waste treatment processes. The production of such fertilizer from the digestate significantly improves the economics of AD systems.
- For the success of WTE systems, it is essential that participation rate in source separation programs is increased through incentives and awareness programs managed by municipalities and non-profit organizations.
- It is crucial to build a skilled educated workforce able to operate the WtE systems.
- Public awareness campaigns should be conducted to alleviate community concerns about the environmental impacts of WtE facilities.
- The Federal Government in Nigeria should embark on pilot WtE projects first before introducing large scale projects. This is due to the high investment cost required to establish a large scale WtE facilities as well as the lack of technological knowledge and experience for handling and operating such facilities.
- Relevant research institutions should be empowered through adequate budget allocation to explore WtE in Nigeria.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|City||P0||r (%)||Wgr (kg/Capita/Day)||Df (%)||Lifetime (years)|
|Lagos||15,387,639 a||3.2 a||0.72 b||40||20|
|Abuja||3,464,000 a||5.67 a||0.66 c||40||20|
|Molar mass (M) (g)||12.01||1.01||16||14.01|
|Electricity Generated (kWh/t of Processed Suitable MSW)||Lagos||Abuja|
|LCC (USD/t)||456.4 (A)||232.76 (A)||419.58 (A)||323.71 (A)|
|467.35 (L)||214.1 (L)||411.04 (L)||240.53 (L)|
|LCOE (USD/kWh)||0.08 (A)||0.062 (A)||0.077 (A)||0.28 (A)|
|0.0803 (L)||0.046 (L)||0.077 (L)||0.16 (L)|
|NPV (USD/t)||617.6 (A)||475.56 (A)||610.65 (A)||−105.42 (A)|
|632.42 (L)||665.42 (L)||598.23 (L)||35.75 (L)|
|IRR (%)||33.6 (A)||45.31 (A)||36.73 (A)||4.17 (A)|
|33.6 (L)||62.84 (L)||36.73 (L)||12.55 (L)|
|PBP (Years)||2.97 (A)||2.21 (A)||2.72 (A)||13.39 (A)|
|2.97 (L)||1.59 (L)||2.72 (L)||7.22 (L)|
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Nubi, O.; Morse, S.; Murphy, R.J. Prospective Life Cycle Costing of Electricity Generation from Municipal Solid Waste in Nigeria. Sustainability 2022, 14, 13293. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013293
Nubi O, Morse S, Murphy RJ. Prospective Life Cycle Costing of Electricity Generation from Municipal Solid Waste in Nigeria. Sustainability. 2022; 14(20):13293. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013293Chicago/Turabian Style
Nubi, Oluwaseun, Stephen Morse, and Richard J. Murphy. 2022. "Prospective Life Cycle Costing of Electricity Generation from Municipal Solid Waste in Nigeria" Sustainability 14, no. 20: 13293. https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013293