# Marine Construction Waste Recycling Mechanism Considering Public Participation and Carbon Trading: A Study on Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Based on Sustainability Policy

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Literature Review

#### 2.1. Recycling and Resourcing of Construction Waste

#### 2.2. Carbon Trading Game

## 3. Problem Description and Model Framework

#### 3.1. Problem Description

#### 3.2. Problem Explanation

#### 3.3. Model Establishment

**Hypothesis**

**1**

**(H1).**

**Hypothesis**

**2**

**(H2).**

**Hypothesis**

**3**

**(H3).**

**Hypothesis**

**4**

**(H4).**

**Hypothesis**

**5**

**(H5).**

## 4. Model Analysis

#### 4.1. Stability Analysis of DER’s Strategies

**Proposition**

**1.**

**Proof.**

**Proposition**

**2.**

**Proof.**

#### 4.2. Stability Analysis of CWR’s Strategies

**Proposition**

**3.**

**Proof.**

**Proposition**

**4.**

**Proof.**

#### 4.3. Stability Analysis of Construction Waste Generators’ Strategies

**Proposition**

**5.**

**Proof.**

**Proposition**

**6.**

**Proof.**

#### 4.4. Stability Analysis of the Equilibrium Point of the Game Model System

**Proposition**

**7.**

**Proof.**

**Proposition**

**8.**

**Proof.**

**Proposition**

**9.**

**Proof.**

## 5. Numerical Simulation Analysis

## 6. Discussion and Limitation

#### 6.1. Discussion

- (1)
- Government chooses to specify positive incentive rules to promote marine environmental construction waste disposal and carbon trading. Under this strategy choice, it is generally the government that uses coercive measures to build the market framework and encourages all parties to participate in the policy construction by adopting the development of incentive regulations to promote the construction waste treatment and carbon sink cycle. For the other two parties, since they are all capitalists, they tend to choose the strategy that is favorable to them. With various forms of incentives from the government, such as construction qualification incentives, land tax exemptions, environmental protection qualification ratings [42], etc. The whole industry will be stimulated to generate internal healthy competition, and more project contractors and construction waste recyclers will participate in the process of construction waste sorting and recycling, which will greatly stimulate the market share of carbon trading. This will greatly stimulate the market share of carbon trading and increase the carbon sink space [12], which is the early development stage of the whole construction waste disposal system.
- (2)
- The second one is a scenario in which the government chooses incentive policies and construction waste recyclers can take the initiative to recycle construction waste. This scenario, according to the simulated values of this study, will exist after the policy is formulated, and the government’s stimulus incentive behavior has been carried out for some time [44]. At this point, after a period of development of the construction waste disposal and carbon trading platform in the marine environment, each entity has already built the relevant responsible department or institution. In particular, the construction waste recyclers will gradually move towards the industrialized and mature stage under the development of the large market of carbon trading for waste recycling, with industrial assembly lines and skilled workers with relevant skills, which can greatly reduce the cost of recycling. After the cost is reduced, construction waste recyclers will compete within the industry to improve technical productivity to expand profit margins. They will also optimize the disposal methods and technologies of non-recyclable waste [36] and expand the business of land reclamation for the disposal of non-polluting building materials waste, earning more room for development of their industry.

#### 6.2. Limitations

## 7. Conclusions

- In the early stages, the planning policies of DER were crucial in increasing the proportion of enterprises recycling construction waste. Appropriate incentive policies should be formulated to establish the processing and recycling system of waste in the marine environment and the platform of carbon sink reserve and carbon trading.
- With the gradual maturation of the construction waste recycling industry, it is profitable for enterprises to recycle such waste. When a high percentage of enterprises do this, DER will gradually reduce their intervention in them, eventually evolving into no regulation. Setting a reasonable reward and punishment mechanism is conducive to promoting enterprises’ construction waste recycling and motivating DER to fulfill its responsibilities, however, excessive incentive money could discourage it from actively planning.
- The public is a significant participant in the construction waste recycling system, and whether to classify and recycle such waste could affect the living environment of the public. It is an effective method to promote construction waste recycling to mobilize public participation and increase informants’ protection and rewards. Certain profits could be brought by the current carbon emissions trading market for enterprises producing renewable construction materials. DER could take the lead to accelerate the cooperation between enterprises and universities to develop more efficient and cleaner construction waste sorting equipment to bring more carbon emission trading indexes for enterprises, which can also promote enterprises to recycle construction waste.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**The relationship between the construction waste recycling process and all parties involved in China’s marine environment.

**Figure 8.**Impact of the success rate of public complaints against government departments for inaction.

**Figure 14.**The development mechanism of construction waste recycling considering public participation and carbon trading in the marine environment.

CPC | DER’s Active Regulation(x) | DER’s Negative Regulation(1 − x) | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

Recycle of CWR(y) | Non-Recycle of CWR(1 − y) | Recycle of CWR(y) | Non-Recycle of CWR(1 − y) | |

recycling(z) | ${\mathrm{Q}-\mathrm{C}}_{1}-2\mathrm{S}$ ${\mathsf{\lambda}(\mathrm{P}}_{1\text{}}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}})-\left({\mathrm{C}-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}\right)+\mathrm{S}$ $\left(1\text{}-\text{}\lambda \right){(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}}{)-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}+\mathrm{S}$ | $\mathrm{H}+\mathsf{\xi}{\mathrm{A}+\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathrm{C}}_{1}{-\mathrm{S}-\mathrm{E}}_{\mathrm{g}}$ ${\mathrm{P}}_{2}-\mathsf{\xi}{\mathrm{A}\text{}-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$ ${\mathrm{S}-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}{-\mathrm{C}}_{2}$ | ${\mathrm{Q}-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}$ ${\mathsf{\lambda}(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}})-\left({\mathrm{C}-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}\right)$ $\left(1-\lambda \right){(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}}{)-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}$ | ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}{-\mathrm{E}}_{\mathrm{g}}$ ${\mathrm{P}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$ ${-\mathrm{C}}_{3}{\mathsf{\eta}-\mathrm{C}}_{2}$ |

Non- recycling (1 − z) | $\mathrm{H}+\mathsf{\xi}{\mathrm{A}+\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathrm{C}}_{1}{-\mathrm{S}-\mathrm{E}}_{\mathrm{g}}$ ${\mathrm{P}}_{2}{-\mathrm{P}}_{3}+\mathrm{S}$ ${-\mathrm{C}}_{2}-\mathsf{\xi}{\mathrm{A}-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$ | $\mathrm{H}+2\mathsf{\xi}{\mathrm{A}+2\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathrm{C}}_{1}{-\mathrm{E}}_{\mathrm{g}}$ ${\mathrm{P}}_{2}-\mathsf{\xi}{\mathrm{A}-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$ ${-\mathrm{C}}_{2}-\mathsf{\xi}{\mathrm{A}-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$ | ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}{-\mathrm{E}}_{\mathrm{g}}$ ${\mathrm{P}}_{2}{-\mathrm{P}}_{3}$ ${-\mathrm{C}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\ast \mathrm{L}}_{2}$ | ${2\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}{-\mathrm{E}}_{\mathrm{g}}$ ${\mathrm{P}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$ ${-\mathrm{C}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$ |

Equilibrium Points | Jacobian Matrix Eigenvalues | Stability Conclusions | Conditions | |

${\mathsf{\lambda}}_{1}{,\mathsf{\lambda}}_{2}{,\mathsf{\lambda}}_{3}$ | Symbols | |||

${\mathrm{E}}_{1}\left(0,0,0\right)$ | ${\mathrm{H}+2\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\mathrm{C}}_{1}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}$, ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathrm{P}}_{3}$, ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}$ | (+,−,−) | IP | |

${\mathrm{E}}_{2}\left(1,0,0\right)$ | ${\mathrm{C}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}-\mathrm{H}-2\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}$, ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathrm{P}}_{3}+\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}+\mathrm{S}$, ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{+\mathrm{S}+\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}$ | (−,−,−) | ESS | ➀ |

${\mathrm{E}}_{3}\left(0,1,0\right)$ | ${\mathrm{H}+\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\mathrm{C}}_{1}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}-\mathrm{S}$, ${\mathrm{P}}_{3}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$, ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}+\left(1-\mathsf{\lambda}\right){(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}}{)+\mathrm{C}}_{2}$ | (+,+,+) | IP | |

${\mathrm{E}}_{4}\left(0,0,1\right)$ | ${\mathrm{H}+\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\mathrm{C}}_{1}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}-\mathrm{S}$, ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{+\mathsf{\lambda}(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}})-\left({\mathrm{C}-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}\right){-\mathrm{P}}_{2}{,\text{}\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}$ | (+,−,+) | IP | |

${\mathrm{E}}_{5}\left(1,0,1\right)$ | ${\mathrm{C}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}+\mathrm{S}-\mathrm{H}-\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}$, ${\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{+\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}+\mathrm{S}+\mathsf{\lambda}(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}})-\left({\mathrm{C}-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}\right){-\mathrm{P}}_{2}$, ${\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}-\mathrm{S}-\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}$ | (−,−,−) | ESS | ➁ |

${\mathrm{E}}_{6}\left(1,1,0\right)$ | ${\mathrm{C}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}+\mathrm{S}-\mathrm{H}-\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}$, ${\mathrm{P}}_{3}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}-\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\mathrm{S}$, ${-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}{+\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}+\mathrm{S}+\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}+\left(1-\mathsf{\lambda}\right){(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}}{)+\mathrm{C}}_{2}$ | (−,−,+) | IP | |

${\mathrm{E}}_{7}\left(0,1,1\right)$ | ${\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\mathrm{C}}_{1}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}-\mathrm{S}$, ${\mathrm{C}-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}{+\mathrm{P}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\lambda}(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}})$, ${\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}-\left(1-\mathsf{\lambda}\right){(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}}{)-\mathrm{C}}_{2}$ | (−,−,−) | ESS | |

${\mathrm{E}}_{8}\left(1,1,1\right)$ | ${\mathrm{C}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}{+2\mathrm{S},\mathrm{C}+\mathrm{P}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}{-\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\mathrm{S}-\mathsf{\lambda}(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}})$, ${\mathsf{\eta}\mathrm{C}}_{3}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{2}{\mathrm{L}}_{2}-\mathrm{S}-\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\left(1-\mathsf{\lambda}\right){(\mathrm{P}}_{1}{+\mathsf{\mu}\mathrm{P}}_{\mathrm{Cq}}{)-\mathrm{C}}_{2}$ | (+,−,−) | IP | |

${\mathrm{E}}_{9}(0,{y}_{1},{z}_{1}$) | ${[\mathrm{H}+2\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}-\mathrm{C}}_{1}{-\mathsf{\beta}}_{1}{\mathrm{L}}_{1}-\left({\mathrm{y}}_{1}{+\mathrm{z}}_{1}\right)\left(\mathrm{S}+\mathsf{\xi}\mathrm{A}\right){-\mathrm{y}}_{1}{\mathrm{z}}_{1}\left(\mathrm{H}\right)]$,0,0 | (−,$0$,0) | IP | ➂ |

${\mathrm{E}}_{14}\left({x}_{1},{y}_{2},1\right)$ | ${a}_{1},{a}_{2},{a}_{3}$ | ($\times $, $\times $,−) | IP | ➃ ➄ |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, J.; Song, Y.; Wang, W.; Wang, S.; Guo, F.; Lu, J.
Marine Construction Waste Recycling Mechanism Considering Public Participation and Carbon Trading: A Study on Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Based on Sustainability Policy. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 10027.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610027

**AMA Style**

Wang J, Song Y, Wang W, Wang S, Guo F, Lu J.
Marine Construction Waste Recycling Mechanism Considering Public Participation and Carbon Trading: A Study on Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Based on Sustainability Policy. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(16):10027.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610027

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Junwu, Yinghui Song, Wei Wang, Suikuan Wang, Feng Guo, and Jiequn Lu.
2022. "Marine Construction Waste Recycling Mechanism Considering Public Participation and Carbon Trading: A Study on Dynamic Modeling and Simulation Based on Sustainability Policy" *Sustainability* 14, no. 16: 10027.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su141610027