# Governmental Anti-Pandemic and Subsidy Strategies for Blockchain-Enabled Food Supply Chains in the Post-Pandemic Era

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Literature Review

#### 2.1. Application of Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Management

#### 2.2. Food Traceability

#### 2.3. Governmental Anti-Pandemic and Subsidy Strategies

#### 2.4. Research Gap

## 3. Model Description

## 4. Model Analysis

#### 4.1. Model-1

**Lemma**

**1.**

#### 4.2. Model-2

**Lemma**

**2.**

#### 4.3. Model-3

**Lemma**

**3.**

#### 4.4. Model-4

**Lemma**

**4.**

**Corollary**

**1.**

**Corollary**

**2.**

## 5. Model Comparison

#### 5.1. Analysis of Governmental Anti-Pandemic Strategy

**Proposition**

**1.**

**Proposition**

**2.**

**Proposition**

**3.**

#### 5.2. Analysis of Governmental Subsidy Strategy

**Proposition**

**4.**

**Proposition**

**5.**

**Proposition**

**6.**

#### 5.3. Comparative Analysis of Governmental Anti-Pandemic and Subsidy Strategies

**Proposition**

**7.**

**Proposition**

**8.**

## 6. Implications

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Nomenclature

Notations | Descriptions |

Decision variables | |

p | The retail price per unit product |

w | The wholesale price per unit product |

m | The 3PL’s logistics service price per unit product |

t | The traceability information level based on blockchain technology, |

hereafter traceability level | |

e | The governmental anti-pandemic effort level |

s | The governmental subsidy level per unit traceability level |

Parameters | |

b | The price sensitivity of the product, $b>0$ |

k | The cost coefficient of traceability by using blockchain |

technology, $k>0$ | |

h | The cost coefficient of anti-pandemic effort, $h>0$ |

$\delta $ | The consumer preference for traceability information, $\delta >0$ |

D | The market demand |

${\mathsf{\Pi}}_{L}$ | The 3PL’s profit function |

${\mathsf{\Pi}}_{S}$ | The supplier’s profit function |

${\mathsf{\Pi}}_{R}$ | The retailer’s profit function |

$C\phantom{\rule{-0.166667em}{0ex}}S$ | The consumer surplus |

$S\phantom{\rule{-0.166667em}{0ex}}W$ | The social welfare |

## Appendix A

**Proof**

**to**

**Lemma**

**1.**

**Proof**

**to**

**Lemma**

**2–4.**

**Proof**

**to**

**Corollary**

**1.**

**Proof**

**to**

**Corollary**

**2.**

**Proof**

**to**

**Proposition**

**1.**

**Proof**

**to**

**Proposition**

**2.**

**Proof**

**to**

**Proposition**

**3–8.**

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Liao, C.; Lu, Q.; Shui, Y.
Governmental Anti-Pandemic and Subsidy Strategies for Blockchain-Enabled Food Supply Chains in the Post-Pandemic Era. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 9497.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159497

**AMA Style**

Liao C, Lu Q, Shui Y.
Governmental Anti-Pandemic and Subsidy Strategies for Blockchain-Enabled Food Supply Chains in the Post-Pandemic Era. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(15):9497.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159497

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Liao, Changhua, Qihui Lu, and Ying Shui.
2022. "Governmental Anti-Pandemic and Subsidy Strategies for Blockchain-Enabled Food Supply Chains in the Post-Pandemic Era" *Sustainability* 14, no. 15: 9497.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159497