# Experimental Study of the Fluctuating Wind Characteristics of Typhoon Jangmi Measured at the Top of a Building

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Typhoon Jangmi and Wind Speed Measurement

## 3. Research on the Wind Characteristics of the Typhoon

#### 3.1. Mean Wind Speed and Direction

#### 3.2. Turbulence Intensity

#### 3.3. Gust Factor

#### 3.4. Peak Factor

#### 3.5. Gust Factor and Turbulence Intensity

#### 3.6. Power Spectrum

#### 3.7. Turbulence Integral Scale

#### 3.8. Coherence Analysis

#### 3.9. Autocorrelation Coefficient

## 4. Analysis of Wind Characteristics Based on Measured Data

#### 4.1. Mean Wind Speed and Direction

#### 4.2. Probability Density Function

#### 4.3. Turbulence Intensity

#### 4.4. Gust Factor

_{g}affects $\mathrm{max}(\overline{\mathrm{u}({\mathrm{t}}_{\mathrm{g}})})$ and $\mathrm{max}(\overline{\mathrm{v}({\mathrm{t}}_{\mathrm{g}})})$. With reference to the research findings of Ashcroft [42] and Krayer [43], this study uses T = 3600 s to evaluate the impact of a short time interval t

_{g}on the gust factor. Figure 8 portrays the variation in gust factor with the time interval under various wind speeds. The longitudinal and lateral gust factors drop as the time interval increases at the east and west measuring stations, and the curve becomes unsmooth at the time intervals of 10, 100, and 1000 s. The gust factors under different wind speed all approach 1.0 at the maximum time interval.

#### 4.5. Peak Factor

#### 4.6. Gust Factor and Turbulence Intensity

#### 4.7. Power Spectrum

#### 4.8. Turbulence Integral Scale

#### 4.9. Coherence Analysis

#### 4.10. Autocorrelation Coefficient

## 5. Conclusions

- During the landfall of Typhoon Jangmi in Wenzhou, its impact was complicated. The wind speed fluctuated irregularly, but overall, the wind speed decreased, though insignificantly. The wind direction, which is measured with an angle, gradually increased. The fluctuating wind speed components of Typhoon Jangmi at the east and west measuring stations tended to obey a Gaussian distribution and fit well with the Gaussian curve, which is consistent with the research findings of Cao [39];
- In low wind conditions, the turbulence intensity steadily reduced as the wind speed increased. As the wind speed continued to increase, this reduction rate dropped. At the east measuring point, the longitudinal and lateral turbulence intensities stabilized at about 0.5 and 0.25, respectively. At the west measuring point, the longitudinal and lateral turbulence intensities stabilized at 0.25. At these points, the curve between turbulence intensity and mean wind speed tended to level off, indicating that the turbulence intensity basically no longer changed with the mean wind speed. When the time interval was short, the decline curve of the turbulence intensity tended to level off; when the time interval was long, the decline curve of the turbulence intensity is steeper, and the steepness of the curve increased as the time interval became longer;
- The gust factor decreased with increasing mean wind speed. From the curves between the gust factor and the average wind speed, the distribution of gust factors at the east measurement site was relatively scattered, whereas gust factors at the west measuring point tended to cluster. The longitudinal and lateral gust factors decreased as the time interval increased for both east and west measurement stations, and the curve became unsmooth at the time intervals of 10, 100, and 1000 s. The gust factors under different wind speeds all approached 1.0 at the maximum time interval;
- The peak factor decreased, though insignificantly, with increasing mean wind speed, and the distribution of peak factors was greatly scattered. The maximum peak factors at the east and west measuring points both fell between 3.0 and 4.0. The gust factor increased as the peak factor increased, and the distribution of gust factors was relatively scattered;
- With increasing turbulence intensity, the gust factor became larger and exhibited a more scattered distribution. For the east measuring point, the fitting parameters of the fitted curve to the measured data were a = 0.5 and b = 0.97; for the west measuring point, the fitting parameters obtained were a = 0.49 and b = 0.9;
- The lateral fluctuating wind speed power spectrum and Von Karman’s empirical spectrum are in good agreement for the east and west measurement spots. The power spectrum of the longitudinal fluctuating wind speed is significantly lower than Von Karman’s empirical spectrum for the mid-band spectrum but is higher than Karman’s empirical spectrum for the high-band spectrum. The autocorrelation coefficient decreased with increasing τ over a 10 min interval.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 3.**Variations in mean wind speed and main wind direction with time: (

**a**) Variation in mean wind speed with time; (

**b**) Variation in main wind direction with time.

**Figure 15.**Relationship between longitudinal turbulence integral scale and mean wind speed: (

**a**) East; (

**b**) West.

**Figure 16.**Relationship between lateral turbulence integral scale and mean wind speed: (

**a**) East; (

**b**) West.

**Figure 17.**Coherence coefficient curves of longitudinal and lateral fluctuating wind speeds: (

**a**) Longitudinal measuring point 1; (

**b**) Lateral measuring point 1; (

**c**) Longitudinal measuring point 2; (

**d**) Lateral measuring point 2; (

**e**) Longitudinal measuring point 3; (

**f**) Lateral measuring point 3; (

**g**) Longitudinal measuring point 4; (

**h**) Lateral measuring point 4.

**Figure 18.**Autocorrelation coefficient of fluctuating wind speed in each direction: (

**a**) Measuring point 1; (

**b**) Measuring point 2; (

**c**) Measuring point 3; (

**d**) Measuring point 4.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Qi, Q.; Zhang, C.; Wang, X.; Fan, G.; Fu, B.
Experimental Study of the Fluctuating Wind Characteristics of Typhoon Jangmi Measured at the Top of a Building. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 9266.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159266

**AMA Style**

Wang Y, Li Y, Qi Q, Zhang C, Wang X, Fan G, Fu B.
Experimental Study of the Fluctuating Wind Characteristics of Typhoon Jangmi Measured at the Top of a Building. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(15):9266.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159266

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Wang, Yanru, Yongguang Li, Qianqian Qi, Chuanxiong Zhang, Xu Wang, Guangyu Fan, and Bin Fu.
2022. "Experimental Study of the Fluctuating Wind Characteristics of Typhoon Jangmi Measured at the Top of a Building" *Sustainability* 14, no. 15: 9266.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14159266