A FuzzyLogic Approach Based on Driver DecisionMaking Behavior Modeling and Simulation
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Background and Related Works
2.1. Aggressive Driving
2.2. Recognizing Driver’s Intention
2.3. Aggressive Driving Behavior Prediction
2.4. Using Fuzzy Logic for Driver Behavior
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Data Collection
3.2. Simulation
3.3. Short Description of the Fuzzy Inference System
 ✓
 Fuzzification
 ✓
 Fuzzy inference process (Aggregation of the Rule Outputs)
 ✓
 Defuzzification
 I.
 LOM (largest of maximum), MOM (middle of maximum) methods
 II.
 Center of Gravity method
 III.
 Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) from Driving Simulator Studies
 Before–After evaluations of performed Studies
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Descriptive Statistic
4.2. Description of the Fuzzy Logic CarFollowing Model
4.3. Defuzzification Values and Output for Each Scenario
4.4. Development of Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) from Driving Simulator Studies
4.4.1. Install Speed Limit in Clear Weather/Dry Road Conditions
4.4.2. Install Speed Limit for Rain Weather/Wet Road Condition
4.4.3. Install Speed Limit in Snow Weather/Snow Road Condition
4.4.4. Install Speed Limit in Snow Weather/Icy Road Conditions
5. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
References
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Driver Characteristics  Classification  Proportion of Drivers 

Age  (18–25)  23% 
(25–30)  26%  
(31–40)  28%  
(41–50)  16%  
(51–60)  7%  
Gender  Male  81% 
Female  19%  
No. of years of driving experience  Primary (1–5 years)  27% 
Middle (6–9 years)  21%  
Senior (≥10 years)  52%  
Highway driving mileage per day  Every day  60% 
Occasionally  12%  
Often  28%  
Speed when you drive on a highway on snowcovered roads  Similar  18% 
Below speed limit  56%  
Below speed 10 limit  17%  
Below 5 mph  9%  
Number of times the driver has slid on snowy and icy roads  Sometimes  60% 
Never  12%  
Often  28%  
Safety  A Little Safe  44% 
Less Safe  11%  
Very Safe  45% 
Variables  Mathematical Representation  Generalized Trapezoidal Fuzzy  

Weather Sensation (Input)  ${\mu}_{V.Safe}\left(x\right)=0;x\ge 3$  
${\mu}_{V.Safe}\left(x\right)=\frac{X2}{32};2x3$  
${\mu}_{V.Safe}\left(x\right)=1;x\le 2$  
${\mu}_{Safe}\left(x\right)=0;x\ge 6$  
${\mu}_{Safe}\left(x\right)=\frac{X5}{65};5x6$  
${\mu}_{Safe}\left(x\right)=1;x\le 5$  
${\mu}_{Risky}\left(x\right)=0;x\ge 9$  
${\mu}_{Risky}\left(x\right)=\frac{X8}{98};8x9$  
${\mu}_{Risky}\left(x\right)=1;x\le 8$  
${\mu}_{H.Risky}\left(x\right)=0;x\ge 10$  Fuzzy Sets  Very safe  safe  Risky  High, Risky  
${\mu}_{H.Risky}\left(x\right)=\frac{X9}{109};9x10$  Values  0–1–2–3  2–3–4–5  5–6–7–8  8–9–10  
${\mu}_{H.Risky}\left(x\right)=1;x\le 9$  
Speed Limit (Output)  ${\mu}_{I.Speed}\left(x\right)=0;x\le 5$  
${\mu}_{I.Speed}\left(x\right)=\frac{10X}{105};10x5$  
${\mu}_{I.Speed}\left(x\right)=1;x\ge 10$  
${\mu}_{Retain.Speed}\left(x\right)=0;x\le 10$  
${\mu}_{Retain\text{}.Speed}\left(x\right)=\frac{5\mathrm{x}}{\left(5\left(10\right)\right)};5x10$  
${\mu}_{Retain\text{}.Speed}\left(x\right)=1;x\ge 5$  
${\mu}_{Reducealettel}\left(x\right)=0;x\le 25$  
${\mu}_{Reduce\text{}a\text{}lettel}\left(x\right)=\frac{20x}{(20\left(25\right)}20x25$  Fuzzy Sets  increase the speed limit  retain current the speed limit  reduce the speed limit a little  reduce the speed limit a lot  
${\mu}_{Reducealettel}\left(x\right)=1;x\ge 20$  
${\mu}_{Reducealot}\left(x\right)=0;x\le 30$  Values  20–15–10–5  10–5–0–(−5)  (−5)–(10)–(−15)–(20)  (−20)–(25)–(30)  
${\mu}_{Reducealot}\left(x\right)=\frac{25\left(x\right)}{\left(25\left(30\right)\right)};25x30$  
${\mu}_{Reducealot}\left(x\right)=1;x\ge 25$  
Production Rules:

Scenario  Weather Condition/Speed Limit  Average Defuzzification  Modify the Speed Limit  Speed Range (mph) 

S1  Clear/80 mph  −5.3195  the speed limit/reduce the speed  From 5 to −20 
S2  Rain/80 mph  −3.8166  retain the current speed limit  From 5 to −5 
S3  Clear/70 mph  −0.3513  retain the current speed limit  From 5 to −5 
S4  Rain/70 mph  2.0397  retain the current speed limit  From 5 to −5 
S5  Snow/70 mph  −11.492  reduce the speed limit a little  From −10 to −20 
S6  Icy/70 mph  −16.4599  reduce the speed limit a little  From −10 to −20 
S7  Snow/50 mph  1.4335  retain the current speed limit  From 5 to −5 
S8  Icy/50 mph  −3.9219  retain the current speed limit  From 5 to −5 
S9  Snow/40 mph  6.6224  increase the speed limit/speed limit  From 20 to −5 
S10  Icy/40mph  3.4828  retain current the speed limit  From 5 to −5 
Weather/Road Condition  Time Period  Change Speed Limit  Crash Type  Count 

Clear/dry  Before  80 mph  Lane Marge (LM)  18 
Hit Object (HO)  24  
After  70 mph  Lane Marge (LM)  15  
Hit Object (HO)  4  
Rain/wet  Before  80 mph  Slow Dawn (SD)  10 
Loss of Control (LOC)  11  
After  70 mph  Slow Dawn (SD  6  
Lane Change (CL)  11  
Snow/snow  Before  70 mph  Loss of Control (LOC)  39 
OTHER  5  
After  50 mph  Loss of Control (LOC)  14  
OTHER  1  
After  40 mph  Loss of Control (LOC)  1  
OTHER  3  
Snow/icy  Before  70 mph  Loss of Control (LOC)  73 
OTHER  5  
After  50 mph  Loss of Control (LOC)  44  
OTHER  5  
After  40 mph  Loss of Control (LOC)  23  
OTHER  2  
Hit Deer (HD)  10 
No #  Treatment  Traffic Volume  Traffic Volume  Weather/Road Condition  CMF  

Speed limit and CMF in Clear/dry condition  LM  HO  Total Crash  Std. Error  
1  Change mean speed from 80 mph to 70 mph  Freeway (Fourlane roads)  Unspecified  Clear/dry  0.83  0.16  0.45  0.047 
Speed limit and CMF in Cloudy/wet condition  SD  CL  Total Crash  Std. Error  
2  Change mean speed from 80 mph to 70 mph  Freeway (Fourlane roads)  Unspecified  Cloudy/wet  0.1  1  0.81  0.046 
Speed limit and CMF in Snow/snow condition  LOC  Other  Total Crash  Std. Error  
3  Change mean speed from 70 mph to 50 mph  Freeway (Fourlane roads)  Unspecified  Snow/snow  0.36  0.20  0.43  0.037 
Change mean speed from 70 mph to 40 mph  0.03  0.60  0.09  0.038  
Speed limit and CMF in Snow/icy condition  LOC  Other  Total Crash  Std. Error  
4  Change mean speed from 70 mph to 50 mph  Freeway (Fourlane roads)  Unspecified  Snow/icy  0.60  1.0  0.63  0.040 
Change mean speed from 70 mph to 40 mph  0.32  0.40  0.45  0.053 
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Almadi, A.I.M.; Al Mamlook, R.E.; Almarhabi, Y.; Ullah, I.; Jamal, A.; Bandara, N. A FuzzyLogic Approach Based on Driver DecisionMaking Behavior Modeling and Simulation. Sustainability 2022, 14, 8874. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148874
Almadi AIM, Al Mamlook RE, Almarhabi Y, Ullah I, Jamal A, Bandara N. A FuzzyLogic Approach Based on Driver DecisionMaking Behavior Modeling and Simulation. Sustainability. 2022; 14(14):8874. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148874
Chicago/Turabian StyleAlmadi, Abdulla I. M., Rabia Emhamed Al Mamlook, Yahya Almarhabi, Irfan Ullah, Arshad Jamal, and Nishantha Bandara. 2022. "A FuzzyLogic Approach Based on Driver DecisionMaking Behavior Modeling and Simulation" Sustainability 14, no. 14: 8874. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148874