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Article

Drying of Food Waste for Potential Use as Animal Feed

1
Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 9, 81237 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Faculty of Chemical Technology, Kabul Polytechnic University, Kart-e Mamoorin, Kabul 1001, Afghanistan
3
Institute of Food and Nutrition, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinského 9, 81237 Bratislava, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mallavarapu Megharaj, Surindra Singh Suthar, Vinod Kumar Garg, Rajeev Pratap Singh and Vaibhav Srivastava
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5849; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105849
Received: 14 April 2022 / Revised: 9 May 2022 / Accepted: 11 May 2022 / Published: 11 May 2022
A considerable part of food is wasted, causing investment capital loss as well as environmental pollution and health problems in humans. Indirect solar drying was applied to test the potential of drying and reusing this waste as a component of animal feed. The effect of weather changes on drying kinetics and the effective diffusion coefficient, dried feed nutritional composition, and microbiological analysis of the dried product were investigated. A convective laboratory dryer was used as a reference method. Weather conditions have a crucial effect on the use of solar drying; one sunny day with appropriate conditions can reduce the water activity of food waste to below 0.3 and moisture content to below 6%. Much better fitting of experimental and model drying curves was achieved considering sample shrinkage, applying a more complex solution of Fick’s second law combined with an optimization procedure. The studied food waste had a good combination of nutrients, such as protein, fat, and carbohydrates; however, the amount of protein in the dried food waste was found to be lower than that in regular feed, and therefore, adding a protein source is recommended. Autoclaving of fresh samples reduced the total microbial counts of dried samples by more than 50%. View Full-Text
Keywords: food waste; pre-treatment; solar drying; convective drying; effective diffusion coefficient food waste; pre-treatment; solar drying; convective drying; effective diffusion coefficient
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MDPI and ACS Style

Noori, A.W.; Royen, M.J.; Medveďová, A.; Haydary, J. Drying of Food Waste for Potential Use as Animal Feed. Sustainability 2022, 14, 5849. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105849

AMA Style

Noori AW, Royen MJ, Medveďová A, Haydary J. Drying of Food Waste for Potential Use as Animal Feed. Sustainability. 2022; 14(10):5849. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105849

Chicago/Turabian Style

Noori, Abdul Wasim, Mohammad Jafar Royen, Alžbeta Medveďová, and Juma Haydary. 2022. "Drying of Food Waste for Potential Use as Animal Feed" Sustainability 14, no. 10: 5849. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105849

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