# Justification of the Application of Resource-Saving Technology for the Restoration of Metal-Intensive Rear Semi-Axles of Trucks Using Hot Plastic Deformation

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

## 3. Results

#### 3.1. Step-by-Step Analysis of the Recovery Process

_{0}. In the absence of such compensation for deviations in the dimensions of the shank (5), when the half-matrices (6 and 7) of the stamp are closed, the axis of the shank rod (5) may shift relative to the axis of the spline surface (4), which in turn will lead to curvature of the semi-axle (3).

_{x}of the shank (5) ensures the immobility of the semi-axle (3) using a one-sided draft with the force P

_{i}of the spline surface (4) and a welded compensator (1), except for in the occurrence of slippage. After clamping the part with a punch (8) fixed to the rod of the power hydraulic cylinder (9), deformation is performed with the force P

_{i}of the spline end (4) by the punch (3), increasing with the resistance of the plasticity of the metal, forcing the compensating metal (1) to be pressed into the body of the semi-axle (3), and moving the base metal to the worn surface (4), filling the engraving (10) formed by the horizontally movable closed half-matrices (6 and 7). In this case, the outer diameter of the spline surface (4) increases to 2R with a one-time filling of hot metal into the spline depressions.

#### 3.2. Step-by-Step Analysis of the Kinematics of Metal Movements

_{0}, taking into account the friction force on the matrix walls when pushing metal through it, is determined with the formula:

_{s}is the yield strength of steel at 1000 °C, MPa; μ is the friction coefficient of the heated metal against the matrix walls; L

_{κ}is the length of the cylindrical section with a small radius, mm; and h is the width of the cylindrical section of the part located in the stamp engraving, mm.

**Figure 2.**Stages of the precipitation process of a stepped semi-axle shank with an applied field of slip lines: (

**a**) the first stage—axial flow of metal with centers of radial displacements; (

**b**) the intermediate stage—filling the gaps in the matrix from the side of the end face of the deformed forging.

_{κ}to move in the radial direction. Figure 2a also shows the plots of the distribution of normal stresses σ

_{s}, constructed based on the fields of slip lines. The deformation force P

_{1}of the cylindrical R

_{cyl}and conical R

_{con}sections, taking into account the field of the sliding lines AOB, can be determined by the formula:

^{2}; and f is the free surface area of metal flow, in mm

^{2}.

#### 3.3. Analysis of the Stress-Strain State of the Part

_{cil}= R

_{con}. Then, the optimal angle of the cone chamfer can be determined according to the formula:

_{i}while reducing the height of the cone part h

_{κi}and the angle of inclination of the generatrix α

_{i}. From the condition of volume constancy of the original and transferred metal, it follows that:

_{i}can be determined:

_{κi}is calculated based on the assumed value of the relative strain ε:

_{i}:

_{2}at the second intermediate stage of deformation is calculated below.

_{cyli}= P

_{coni}, the value of the radial movement of the metal b

_{i}can be expressed:

**Figure 3.**The final stages of forming the semi-axle shank: (

**a**) the final stage of filling the stamp engraving; (

**b**) complete closing of the deforming elements of the stamp.

_{3}is determined with the formula:

_{4}is likely dependent on sufficient deformation of the semi-axle draft by the punch, which is crucial in the selection of pressing equipment, the design of die tooling elements, and conducting-strength calculations.

#### 3.4. Determination of the Energy-Power Characteristics of the Process

#### 3.5. Results of a Multifactorial Experiment

**P**, the precipitation amount

**ΔL**, the heating temperature of the part

**T**, and the diameter of the compensator

**d**=

**2r**:

## 4. Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 4.**The calculated curve of the deformation force change, depending on the value of upsetting during the formation of the semi-axle shank blank of the KamAZ truck.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Kolotyrin, K.P.; Bogatyrev, S.A.; Kostyukhin, Y.Y.; Savon, D.Y.; Shinkevich, A.I.
Justification of the Application of Resource-Saving Technology for the Restoration of Metal-Intensive Rear Semi-Axles of Trucks Using Hot Plastic Deformation. *Sustainability* **2022**, *14*, 16.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010016

**AMA Style**

Kolotyrin KP, Bogatyrev SA, Kostyukhin YY, Savon DY, Shinkevich AI.
Justification of the Application of Resource-Saving Technology for the Restoration of Metal-Intensive Rear Semi-Axles of Trucks Using Hot Plastic Deformation. *Sustainability*. 2022; 14(1):16.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010016

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Kolotyrin, Konstantin P., Sergey A. Bogatyrev, Yuri Yu. Kostyukhin, Diana Yu. Savon, and Alexey I. Shinkevich.
2022. "Justification of the Application of Resource-Saving Technology for the Restoration of Metal-Intensive Rear Semi-Axles of Trucks Using Hot Plastic Deformation" *Sustainability* 14, no. 1: 16.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010016