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Article

Environmental Kuznets Curve and the Pollution-Halo/Haven Hypotheses: An Investigation in Brazilian Municipalities

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Department of Production Engineering (DEP), Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), São Carlos 13565-905, Brazil
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Department of Economics (DEECO), Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP), Mariana 35420-000, Brazil
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Department of Production Engineering, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Bauru 17033-360, Brazil
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Department of Innovation Economics, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
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Department of Production Engineering, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba 38025-180, Brazil
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Department of Production Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos (EESC), University of São Paulo (USP), São Carlos 13566-590, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrzej Cieślik and Michael Ryan
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4114; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084114
Received: 23 February 2021 / Revised: 9 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
There is much discussion on the non-linear relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Additionally, the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on the environment are ambiguous, as both beneficial (i.e., pollution-halo) and harmful (i.e., pollution-haven) effects were found. Therefore, the literature presents no consensus on either of these topics. This is especially problematic for developing regions, as these regions represent growing economies interested in receiving foreign investments, and their CO2-related research is limited. This study aims to understand the impacts of economic growth and FDI on the CO2 emissions of São Paulo state, Brazil. To perform this study, a unique dataset on regional FDI was built, and 592 municipalities were included. The analyses combine linear and non-linear estimations, and the results suggest a non-linear relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and CO2 emissions, along with a negative association between FDI and CO2. Finally, this study discusses possible policy implications and contributes to the international literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: foreign direct investment; FDI; economic growth; CO2 emissions; pollution; São Paulo; Brazil foreign direct investment; FDI; economic growth; CO2 emissions; pollution; São Paulo; Brazil
MDPI and ACS Style

Polloni-Silva, E.; Ferraz, D.; Camioto, F.d.C.; Rebelatto, D.A.d.N.; Moralles, H.F. Environmental Kuznets Curve and the Pollution-Halo/Haven Hypotheses: An Investigation in Brazilian Municipalities. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4114. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084114

AMA Style

Polloni-Silva E, Ferraz D, Camioto FdC, Rebelatto DAdN, Moralles HF. Environmental Kuznets Curve and the Pollution-Halo/Haven Hypotheses: An Investigation in Brazilian Municipalities. Sustainability. 2021; 13(8):4114. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084114

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polloni-Silva, Eduardo, Diogo Ferraz, Flávia d.C. Camioto, Daisy A.d.N. Rebelatto, and Herick F. Moralles. 2021. "Environmental Kuznets Curve and the Pollution-Halo/Haven Hypotheses: An Investigation in Brazilian Municipalities" Sustainability 13, no. 8: 4114. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084114

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