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Article

TOPOI RESOURCES: Quantification and Assessment of Global Warming Potential and Land-Uptake of Residential Buildings in Settlement Types along the Urban–Rural Gradient—Opportunities for Sustainable Development

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TU Braunschweig, Institute for Building Services and Energy Design (IGS), Mühlenpfordtstr. 23, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
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TU Braunschweig, Institute for Sustainable Urbanism (ISU), Pockelsstr. 3, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oriol Pons-Valladares
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4099; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084099
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
The METAPOLIS as the polycentric network of urban–rural settlement is undergoing constant transformation and urbanization processes. In particular, the associated imbalance of the shrinkage and growth of different settlement types in relative geographical proximity causes negative effects, such as urban sprawl and the divergence of urban–rural lifestyles with their related resource, land and energy consumption. Implicitly related to these developments, national and global sustainable development goals for the building sector lead to the question of how a region can be assessed without detailed research and surveys to identify critical areas with high potential for sustainable development. In this study, the TOPOI method is used. It classifies settlement units and their interconnections along the urban–rural gradient, in order to quantify and assess the land-uptake and global warming potential driven by residential developments. Applying standard planning parameters in combination with key data from a comprehensive life cycle assessment of the residential building stock, a detailed understanding of different settlement types and their associated resource and energy consumption is achieved. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; LCA; settlement types; CO2 emissions; GWP; land-uptake; density; urban–rural development; TOPOI; sustainability life cycle assessment; LCA; settlement types; CO2 emissions; GWP; land-uptake; density; urban–rural development; TOPOI; sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mühlbach, A.-K.; Mumm, O.; Zeringue, R.; Redbergs, O.; Endres, E.; Carlow, V.M. TOPOI RESOURCES: Quantification and Assessment of Global Warming Potential and Land-Uptake of Residential Buildings in Settlement Types along the Urban–Rural Gradient—Opportunities for Sustainable Development. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4099. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084099

AMA Style

Mühlbach A-K, Mumm O, Zeringue R, Redbergs O, Endres E, Carlow VM. TOPOI RESOURCES: Quantification and Assessment of Global Warming Potential and Land-Uptake of Residential Buildings in Settlement Types along the Urban–Rural Gradient—Opportunities for Sustainable Development. Sustainability. 2021; 13(8):4099. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084099

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mühlbach, Ann-Kristin, Olaf Mumm, Ryan Zeringue, Oskars Redbergs, Elisabeth Endres, and Vanessa Miriam Carlow. 2021. "TOPOI RESOURCES: Quantification and Assessment of Global Warming Potential and Land-Uptake of Residential Buildings in Settlement Types along the Urban–Rural Gradient—Opportunities for Sustainable Development" Sustainability 13, no. 8: 4099. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084099

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