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Open AccessArticle

Investigation on Recycling Dry Toilet Generated Blackwater by Anaerobic Digestion: From Energy Recovery to Sanitation

by 1,2,†, 1,2,†, 1,2,*, 1,2 and 1
1
School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource—Oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Giovanni De Feo
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4090; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084090
Received: 17 January 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been widely adapted for blackwater treatment, however, the effect of water-conserving toilet generated blackwater on the AD process is still unknown. In this study, the anaerobic digestion process of dry toilet generated blackwater was investigated by means of a biomethane potential test. It was demonstrated that anaerobic digestion was inhibited and then adapted because of a high total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) level (3673.3 mg/L). The start-up period was 14.04 days and the biomethane potential of dry toilet blackwater was 402.36 mLCH4/gVS (55 days, 38 °C). Inhabitation and adaptation could be described as the increase of free ammonia nitrogen content and acetic acid concentration, followed by an enhancement of the relative abundance of acetic acid-type methanogens (from 33.53–61.52%). The main pathogen in dry toilet blackwater fermentation broth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, kept multiplying in the first 8 days and then stabilized at a higher level than that of the beginning. This work showed the self-adjustment process and pathogen dynamics of dry toilet blackwater anaerobic digestion and highlights the significance of dry toilet blackwater characteristics when designing and maintaining anaerobic digestion sanitary treatment and reuse systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: blackwater; dry toilet; sanitation; sustainable treatment blackwater; dry toilet; sanitation; sustainable treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zuo, S.; Zhou, X.; Li, Z.; Wang, X.; Yu, L. Investigation on Recycling Dry Toilet Generated Blackwater by Anaerobic Digestion: From Energy Recovery to Sanitation. Sustainability 2021, 13, 4090. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084090

AMA Style

Zuo S, Zhou X, Li Z, Wang X, Yu L. Investigation on Recycling Dry Toilet Generated Blackwater by Anaerobic Digestion: From Energy Recovery to Sanitation. Sustainability. 2021; 13(8):4090. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084090

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zuo, Siqi; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Li, Zifu; Wang, Xuemei; Yu, Longbin. 2021. "Investigation on Recycling Dry Toilet Generated Blackwater by Anaerobic Digestion: From Energy Recovery to Sanitation" Sustainability 13, no. 8: 4090. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084090

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