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Article

A New Multibranch Model for Metals in River Systems: Impacts and Control of Tannery Wastes in Bangladesh

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School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK
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Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM), Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
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Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, UK
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Oxford Molecular Biosensors, Centre for Innovation and Enterprise, Begbroke, Oxford OX5 1PF, UK
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Geology Department, State University of New York College at Cortland, Cortland, NY 13045, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elena Rada
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3556; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063556
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 17 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
A new multibranch Integrated Catchment (INCA) model INCA-Metals has been developed to simulate the impact of tannery discharges on river systems. The model accounts for the key chemical reaction kinetic processes operating as well as sedimentation, resuspension, dilution, mixing and redistribution of pollutants in rivers downstream of tannery discharge points and for mine discharges or acid rock drainage sites. The model is dynamic and simulates the daily behaviour of hydrology and eight metals, including cadmium, mercury, copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, manganese and chromium, as well as cyanide and ammonia. The model is semi-distributed and can simulate catchments, tributaries and instream river behaviour. The model can also account for diffuse pollution from rural runoff as well as point sources from effluent and trade discharges. The model has been applied to the new Savar tannery complex on the Dhaleshwari River system in Bangladesh to assess the impacts on pollution levels in the river system and to evaluate a set of treatment scenarios for pollution control, particularly in the dry season. It is shown that the new effluent treatment plant at Savar needs to significantly improve its operation and treatment capability in order to alleviate metal pollution in the downstream Dhaleshwari River System and also protect the Meghna River System that falls in the Bay of Bengal. View Full-Text
Keywords: modeling; mines; pollution; metals; Bangladesh; tanneries modeling; mines; pollution; metals; Bangladesh; tanneries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Whitehead, P.G.; Mimouni, Z.; Butterfield, D.; Bussi, G.; Hossain, M.A.; Peters, R.; Shawal, S.; Holdship, P.; Rampley, C.P.N.; Jin, L.; Ager, D. A New Multibranch Model for Metals in River Systems: Impacts and Control of Tannery Wastes in Bangladesh. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3556. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063556

AMA Style

Whitehead PG, Mimouni Z, Butterfield D, Bussi G, Hossain MA, Peters R, Shawal S, Holdship P, Rampley CPN, Jin L, Ager D. A New Multibranch Model for Metals in River Systems: Impacts and Control of Tannery Wastes in Bangladesh. Sustainability. 2021; 13(6):3556. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063556

Chicago/Turabian Style

Whitehead, Paul G., Zineb Mimouni, Daniel Butterfield, Gianbattista Bussi, Mohammed A. Hossain, Rebecca Peters, Shammi Shawal, Phillip Holdship, Cordelia P.N. Rampley, Li Jin, and Duane Ager. 2021. "A New Multibranch Model for Metals in River Systems: Impacts and Control of Tannery Wastes in Bangladesh" Sustainability 13, no. 6: 3556. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063556

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