Next Article in Journal
Dynamic Control of Integrated Wind Farm Battery Energy Storage Systems for Grid Connection
Next Article in Special Issue
Time–Frequency Analysis of Diesel Engine Noise Using Biodiesel Fuel Blends
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Fine Recycled Concrete Powder on the Compressive Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) Using Artificial Neural Network
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sustainability Evaluation of Renewable Energy Incubators Using Interval Type-II Fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS with MEA-MLSSVM
Review

The Utilisation of Palm Oil and Oil Palm Residues and the Related Challenges as a Sustainable Alternative in Biofuel, Bioenergy, and Transportation Sector: A Review

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
2
Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Talal Yusaf
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3110; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063110
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 21 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 12 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy and Environmental Pollution)
The importance of energy demands that have increased exponentially over the past century has led to the sourcing of other ideal power solutions as the potential replacement alternative to the conventional fossil fuel. However, the utilisation of fossil fuel has created severe environmental issues. The identification of other renewable sources is beneficial to replace the energy utilisation globally. Biomass is a highly favourable sustainable alternative to renewable resources that can produce cleaner, cheaper, and readily available energy sources in the future. The palm oil industry is essentially ideal for the availability of abundant biomass resources, where the multifaceted residues are vital for energy production through the conversion of biomass waste into value-added products simultaneously. This article discusses the utilisation of palm oil and its residues in the energy and transportation sector. Assessment and evaluation on the feasibility of palm oil and its residues were made on the current valorisation methods such as thermochemical and biochemical techniques. Their potential as transportation fuels were concurrently reviewed. This is followed by a discussion on future challenges of palm oil industries that will take place globally, including the prospects from government and nongovernment organisations for the development of palm oil as a sustainable alternative replacement to fossil fuel. Hence, this review aims to provide further insight into the possibilities of palm oil and its residues towards sustainable development with reduced environmental-related issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofuel; bioenergy; oil palm residues; renewable energy; thermochemical process; biochemical process; pyrolysis; direct combustion; anaerobic digestion; gasification; agropolitics biofuel; bioenergy; oil palm residues; renewable energy; thermochemical process; biochemical process; pyrolysis; direct combustion; anaerobic digestion; gasification; agropolitics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kaniapan, S.; Hassan, S.; Ya, H.; Patma Nesan, K.; Azeem, M. The Utilisation of Palm Oil and Oil Palm Residues and the Related Challenges as a Sustainable Alternative in Biofuel, Bioenergy, and Transportation Sector: A Review. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3110. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063110

AMA Style

Kaniapan S, Hassan S, Ya H, Patma Nesan K, Azeem M. The Utilisation of Palm Oil and Oil Palm Residues and the Related Challenges as a Sustainable Alternative in Biofuel, Bioenergy, and Transportation Sector: A Review. Sustainability. 2021; 13(6):3110. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063110

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaniapan, Sivabalan, Suhaimi Hassan, Hamdan Ya, Kartikeyan Patma Nesan, and Mohammad Azeem. 2021. "The Utilisation of Palm Oil and Oil Palm Residues and the Related Challenges as a Sustainable Alternative in Biofuel, Bioenergy, and Transportation Sector: A Review" Sustainability 13, no. 6: 3110. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063110

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop