Influence of Service Valuation and Package Cost on Market Segmentation: The Case of Online Demand for Spanish and Andorra Ski Resorts
2. Literature Review
3. Data and Method
3.2.1. Manifest Variables
4.1. Model Selection and Number of Classes
4.2. Description of Classes
- Class 1: Low-to-average accommodation type.
- Class 2: Young Spanish tourists who travel in couple.
- Class 3: Average-to-old, mainly Spanish travelers who stay at upper-level accommodation.
- Class 4: Old and young (but not intermediate-aged) foreigners (mainly UK and French) who travel in couple.
- Class 5: Couples of all ages, Spanish or foreign, first-time users of the portal website esquiades.com, who choose good accommodation for a short stay.
- Class 6: Similar but with a slightly higher percentage of Spaniards, intermediate age category, higher focus on intermediate accommodation, and larger average group size.
4.3. Probability of Class Membership
- Travelers with a low expenditure have a roughly 0.5 probability of belonging to class 1, and this is relatively independent of the valuation they give to the travel product. The remaining 0.5 probability is more or less evenly divided over the remaining classes.
- For average and high daily expenditure, very similar results are found. In particular, travelers who give a low valuation have a high probability (0.4–0.6) of belonging to class 1. As their valuation increases, they tend more and more (up to 0.3–0.4) to belong to classes 2 or 3. There is also a non-negligible probability of belonging to class 4, especially at intermediate valuations.
- For low valuation, at very low daily expenditure there is a probability of roughly 0.25 of belonging to class 1 and likewise for class 6; the remaining 0.5 is equally divided over the remaining classes. As the expenditure increases, the probability of belonging to class 6 decreases rapidly in favour of class 1.
- For intermediate and high valuation, a complex picture emerges. For low to intermediate expenditure profiles, classes 1 and 6 again dominate. However, as the expenditure increases, classes 2 and 3 become more important. Class 4 is also present, with probabilities up to 0.2, at high expenditures in the intermediate valuation range, and at intermediate-to-high expenditures in the high valuation category. Finally, there is a non-negligible contribution (∼0.1) from class 5 for high valuation and high expenditure.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Latent Class Model
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|Accommodation||1||Class 1||Hotels of 1 or 2 stars and Apartments of 1 or 2 keys||9091|
|2||Class 2||Hotels of 3 stars and Apartments of 3 keys||18,588|
|3||Class 3||Hotels of 4 or 5 stars and Apartments of 4 keys||17,039|
|Age||1||Young||Up to 33 years||22,225|
|2||Middle age||34 to 49 years||18,800|
|3||Senior||Over 50 years||9681|
|Group size||1||Solo||A tourist travelling alone||1233|
|3||Family||3 or 4 persons||17,067|
|4||Group||5 persons or more||6772|
|Nationality||1||Spanish||Tourists from Spain||31,955|
|Package||1||Accommodation + ski pass||Hotel or apartment + Ski pass||45,431|
|2||Accommodation only||No ski pass||5275|
|Previous experience||1||No||Never bought a package on esquiades.com before||24,669|
|2||Yes||Bought a package at least once before||26,037|
|Season||1||Winter||January to March||36,254|
|2||Spring||April to June||2666|
|3||Summer||July to September||1867|
|4||Autumn||October to December||9919|
|Length of Stay||1||Short||1 or 2 days||24,901|
|2||Intermediate||3 days or more||25,805|
|Deflated daily expenditure per tourism (DDET)||68.73||26.25||64.66||0.93||1.22|
|Service valuation (SV)||8.64||1.86||9.00||−1.29||2.34|
|Latent class model (LCM) without covariates||Not included|
|LCM with daily expenditure as covariate||DDET|
|LCM with service valuation as covariate||SV|
|LCM with 2 additive covariates||DDET + SV|
|LCM with 2 covariates with cross-effects||DDET + SV + (DDET*SV)|
|Estimated Class Population Shares|
|Class 1||Class 2||Class 3||Class 4||Class 5||Class 6|
|Fit for 6 latent classes:|
|2/1||Coefficient βr,i||Std. error||t value||p(>|t|)|
|3/1||Coefficient βr,i||Std. error||t value||p(>|t|)|
|4/1||Coefficient βr,i||Std. error||t value||p(>|t|)|
|5/1||Coefficient βr,i||Std. error||t value||p(>|t|)|
|6/1||Coefficient βr,i||Std. error||t value||p(>|t|)|
|Number of observations: 44,718|
Number of estimated parameters: 110
Maximum log-likelihood: −283,358.4
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Barreal, J.; Ferrer-Rosell, B.; Cristobal-Fransi, E.; Jannes, G. Influence of Service Valuation and Package Cost on Market Segmentation: The Case of Online Demand for Spanish and Andorra Ski Resorts. Sustainability 2021, 13, 2938. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052938
Barreal J, Ferrer-Rosell B, Cristobal-Fransi E, Jannes G. Influence of Service Valuation and Package Cost on Market Segmentation: The Case of Online Demand for Spanish and Andorra Ski Resorts. Sustainability. 2021; 13(5):2938. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052938Chicago/Turabian Style
Barreal, Jesús, Berta Ferrer-Rosell, Eduard Cristobal-Fransi, and Gil Jannes. 2021. "Influence of Service Valuation and Package Cost on Market Segmentation: The Case of Online Demand for Spanish and Andorra Ski Resorts" Sustainability 13, no. 5: 2938. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13052938