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Article

The Role of Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Globalization in Environmental Degradation: Empirical Evidence from the BRICS Region

1
Holmes Institute, Gold Coast, QLD 4217, Australia
2
Bond Business School, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD 4226, Australia
3
Endicott College of International Studies (ECIS), Woosong University, Daejeon 34606, Korea
4
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, UTP University of Science and Technology, Al. Prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, 85-348 Bydgoszcz; Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gyuricza Csaba, Muhammad Asif Khan and Judit Oláh
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1924; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041924
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
This paper examines the effect of energy consumption, globalization, and economic growth on the CO2 emission of the BRICS (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa) region. Using annual data from 1989 to 2019, this research applies a panel cointegration approach. In this framework, we use Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) methods to examine the long-run relationship between the selected variables. This empirical investigation reveals that there is a long-run association between these variables, and energy consumption positively and significantly affects the carbon emission in these countries. These results indicate that energy consumption is the primary source of environmental degradation in the region. In contrast, the globalization (KOF Index of Globalization) negatively and significantly affects the carbon emission, implying the improvement of environmental quality. Further, this research could not find the presence of environmental Kuznets curve in the region. Policy guidelines are suggested in the line of findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy consumption; economic growth; globalization; CO2 emission; FMOLS and DOLS energy consumption; economic growth; globalization; CO2 emission; FMOLS and DOLS
MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, H.U.; Zaman, U.; Górecki, J. The Role of Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Globalization in Environmental Degradation: Empirical Evidence from the BRICS Region. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1924. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041924

AMA Style

Rahman HU, Zaman U, Górecki J. The Role of Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Globalization in Environmental Degradation: Empirical Evidence from the BRICS Region. Sustainability. 2021; 13(4):1924. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041924

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahman, Habib U., Umer Zaman, and Jarosław Górecki. 2021. "The Role of Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Globalization in Environmental Degradation: Empirical Evidence from the BRICS Region" Sustainability 13, no. 4: 1924. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041924

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