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The Aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Job Candidates’ Recruitment and Selection Processes in a Teal Organization

Faculty of Social Sciences, Calisia University, 62-800 Kalisz, Poland
Faculty of Management, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13175;
Received: 10 November 2021 / Accepted: 26 November 2021 / Published: 28 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Society 5.0 and Industry 4.0 Relations and Implications)


(1) Background: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept, which from its very beginning, has been dividing researchers and practicians into its supporters and opponents. The owners of some organizations can still see in it its great value and implement its premises, among other things, in the human resources management processes. (2) Methods: The aim of the research presented within this article was to define the aspects of CSR in the processes of recruitment and selection of candidates to work in the teal organization and the motifs of implementing the aspects of CSR into these processes. A qualitative research strategy was applied in order to achieve reliable research results, and a single embedded case study was used as a tool of this research. The research information was gathered with the use of the following research methods: interviews, analysis of the documents, and analysis of the audio–visual materials (video recordings). The research was carried out in one of the leading teal companies in Poland, Marco Company Ltd. (3) Results: In the organization being researched, the aspects of the teal organization were identified in ten elements of the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes. They permeate the entire process of recruitment constituting its inherent feature. The inclusion of CSR aspects into the processes of the job candidates’ recruitment and selection allows the company to gain such candidates who will make up the unique organization culture in cooperation with other Marco Company employees and will also fulfil corporate fundamental vision and mission. (4) Conclusions: The processes realized within the analysed company, including those in the field of job candidates‘ recruitment and selection, are to create a socially responsible and timeless business as the foundation of the welfare of the customers, suppliers, employees, company partners and local society. In order to achieve this purpose, the company needs suitable people, and that is the reason why CSR aspects are already included in the process of job candidates’ recruitment and selection.

1. Introduction

The concept of corporate social responsibility stems from the belief that the company owners’ duty is not only to care for companies’ revenues, but also to bear in mind the broader context of their functioning, for example ethical, social and environmental issues. This is displayed in taking actions both for the inner stakeholders and employees, as well as the external clients, i.e., customers and suppliers. Such vision corresponds with the idea of a teal organization, which sets values, as opposed to the owners’ wealth, in the heart of the organization’s functioning. Obviously, this does not omit and resign from its profits [1]. The practical realization of the premises of both concepts goes through the inner stakeholders, i.e., the employees hired in the organization. This is the point where the significant role of human resources management, especially regarding the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes, stems from. It conditions the quality of the obtained “resources” and the opportunity for the realization of the set company’s goals.
The aim of the research presented in this article was to identify the aspects of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in a teal organization and the motives of CSR implementation in these processes. The ISO 26,000 standard was used as a model to search for CSR aspects in the recruitment and selection processes in a teal organization. For the purpose of conducting the literature and empirical research, four research questions were formulated. The conducted research process is presented in Figure 1.
The literature research did not answer the research questions RQ3 and RQ4, so empirical research was conducted in one of the leading teal organizations in Poland, Marco Limited Company from Gliwice. While conducting the research, a quality research strategy using a single embedded case study was incorporated. The research information was gathered with the use of the following research methods: interviews, documents analysis and the analysis of audio–visual materials (video recordings).
This paper consists of four main parts. The first part of the article presents the frame of terms based on two elements: (i) the first one analyses the CSR concept and dependencies between CSR and HRM, (ii) the second one explains the idea of a teal organization and the processes of job candidates’ recruitment and selection in this organization. The second part of the article explains the methodology of the undertaken research, describing the process of data collection necessary for this case study. The third part of the text is devoted to the practices used in the processes of job candidates’ recruitment and selection. In this part, the aspects/elements of CSR involved in the processes mentioned above have also been identified and analysed, and the motives underlying these actions. The fourth part of the text sums the article up with the discussion and conclusions drawn from it.

2. Theoretical Background

2.1. Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Relation to HRM

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a relatively new field of academic studies. It dates back to the 1950s, while in Poland it appeared at the beginning of the 1990s. Within this period, the concept underwent a gradual evolution [2], and has still been undergoing an intensive development process [3]. As a result, there is no agreement among the scholars dealing with the CSR concept concerning the essence of the matter (an example overview of the definitions are included in [2]), its research fields, tools or forms. This means that the sense of CSR is amorphous and it includes numerous concepts. Beside this, it differentiates depending on the period of time, the country, region, culture [4], or even the type of the organization it is defined in [5]. So, it is worth citing the primary definition of corporate social responsibility, which says: ‘it refers to the obligations of businessmen to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action which are desirable in terms of the objectives and values of our society’ [6]. Thus, the author of this definition points out that the entrepreneurs’ duty is not only to care about the organization’s wellness, but also to take into account the aims and the values of the society that the organization functions in. No enterprise functions in vacuum, and therefore, all the decisions made by the organization owners, managing board and its employees have a significant influence on its surroundings and the stakeholders. Despite the lack of agreement on the CSR matter, its conceptual framework needs to be depicted: it is perceived as an active way of undertaking various activities by business organizations in order to achieve maximum revenues with simultaneous care about ethical, social and environmental issues. These fully voluntary initiatives are to support a balanced socioeconomic growth of society and the protection of the natural environment. Enterprises which desire to include aspects of corporate social responsibility in their activity, use a variety of common practises, which are frequently collected in the form of a code [7,8].
In accordance with the position of the European Commission, CSR might be analysed in two dimensions: the inner and the outer one. The inner dimension refers mainly to the company employees and includes issues such as the investment in human resources, health and safety of the employees, etc. [9]. ISO standard 26,000 [10] is a kind of a guide on the corporate social responsibility concept wrapped up by the International Organization for Standardization. Within this standard, seven main domains of social responsibility are marked—organizational governance, human rights, labour (employee) practices, natural environment protection, consumption-related issues, fair-trade practices, local community involvement and development. Despite the fact that the CSR concept has been criticised from the very beginning of its appearance, and even today it is still heavily criticised for its lack of cohesion, its contribution to the increase in operating costs, and for distracting the organization’s attention from its main purpose (et., generating higher and higher revenues) [11,12], many scholars point out its great value of building and maintaining the corporate image, its reputation, strengthening competitiveness of the company, and shaping beneficial conditions of socioeconomic growth [13].
Carrying out further considerations, the relationship between CSR and Human Resources Management (HRM) is worth analysing. Scholars’ interest in the relationship between these two concepts has been recently increasing significantly [14,15]. In the scholarly debate, two trends are dominant: HRM is perceived as a part of CSR or CSR is seen as a part of HRM, because employees and managers are usually considered to be very important factors (actors of successful implantation of CSR) [16]. Very little research is focused on the analysis of the mutual relations or integration of CSR and HRM [17]. It is also worth noting that some contemporary models of HRM, e.g., S.E. Jackson, R.S. Schuler and S. Werner, include aspects of CSR, which means that they concentrate on the satisfaction of different groups of stakeholders [18]. The employees of the company make up the group of inner stakeholders, which is the most valuable for the organization. So, the research confirms that CSR and HRM are closely related to each other and their influence on one another is mutual [19,20]. The CSR concept itself has also a growing influence on the practices in the HRM field [21], as a result, knowledge in this field is growing significantly [22].
Additionally, it is worth pointing out that, in the opinion of job candidates, the implementation of CSR practices increases the reputation and attractiveness of the organization as a workplace [23]. Especially for young people from so-called “the Z generation”, employers who have implemented the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) are more attractive [24,25]. CSR can help to attract the best talent, as job applicants increasingly value CSR-related aspects and CSR can inform HRM selection procedures on issues of diversity and equal opportunity [16]. In addition, the implementation of CSR practices affects the greater involvement and motivation of employees, their efficiency, morale and retention of employees in the organization [26,27,28,29].
The following article, which in the aspect of deepening the theory aims at expanding the knowledge in this field, shows the effects of this trend. Examples of the integration of the concepts of CSR and HMR are the practices undertaken by the teal organizations, especially seen in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes.

2.2. The Concept of a Teal Organization

The concept of a teal organization has been described in a very comprehensive way by Frederic Laloux in his book Reinventing organization [1]. This book is the result of long-term research carried out by the author into the organizations, which function in a new way, different from that of the still-dominating hierarchical organizations. F. Laloux refers in his work to the integral theory by Ken Wilber [30,31] and the spiral dynamics theory by Clare W. Gravesa [32,33]. The teal organization is then the organization inspired by the next, higher stage of human consciousness. The teal paradigm becomes a new management paradigm, and teal organizations make up a new coherent model of an organization. According to F. Laloux, teal organizations are based on three pillars (called “breakthroughs” by the author); among them are [1]:
  • Self-management (for example, A.J. Blikle believes that the term “self-management” is not adequate in reference to teal organizations. Within these organizations, a team decision-making process concerning task sharing is applied, so a more suitable term to be used is “self-organization” [34])—the structure of an organization is flat and flexible, which enables quick reactions to changes in the surrounding environment. These organizations lack managers, or to say it more precisely, every employee is kind of “a manager”, to the best of their abilities, experience and competencies. In this way, the power of the authority in such an organization multiplies when it is distributed to all its employees, not only to its managers. The managing functions, such as planning, organizing and controlling work, are assigned to teams. Relationships at work are based on trust and honesty. There are no managers, but there are leaders, whose role is to be a coach or a mentor. Furthermore, leaders coordinate teams’ work or cross-panel teams’ work, and they also cultivate the values and the pillars of a teal organization;
  • Evolutionary purpose—teal organizations are seen as living organisms, living systems, which have their “soul”, their own purpose of existence, which is evolving together with the organization development. Hence, the members of an organization listen carefully to which direction the organization wants to follow and they do not enforce its further direction of development. What is important, is that the evolutionary purpose is sought by all the organization employees, not only by the chosen group, i.e., the owners of the organization. Besides that, teal organizations do not foresee and control the future, but they pay full attention to listening to what is happening “here and now”, and respond to the present, simultaneously trying to build-up the future. They aim at understanding what the organization wants to become and what aims it wants to fulfil. Teal organizations also do not analyse the actions taken by their competitors, they do not try to destroy them, catch up with them or even outrun them, etc.;
  • Wholeness—teal organizations see the employee as wholeness; they are fully aware that there is no possibility to employ only knowledge, skills, or even the experience of a given man. The man will also bring to an organization emotions, spirituality, values, intuition, etc. In this way, the employees might be authentic in their work, and they are able to use their strengths fully, without putting on the masks of professionals and pretending to be someone who they are not. Such an approach frees a lot of energy from the employees, which might be used for the good of the whole organization. Wholeness also enables the employees to find their own unique place in the organization, suitable for their talents and potential, thanks to which they might undertake activities important to the organization and to themselves.
Some researchers will also add the fourth pillar/breakthrough of the teal organization, which is transparency, understood as the process of sharing the important information about the financial and business situation of the organization with all its members (for example, the owners of the teal organizations (Adam Matysiak, the co-owner of HighSolutions from Poznan [35], Marek Wzorek, the owner of ecoCoach from Warsaw [36] and others) believe in that pillar). The concept of a teal organization has been gaining a lot of interest recently, both from the practitioners of the organization (For example, the increasing number of trainings on teal organizations, the increasing number of teal organizations, the appearance of the offer of postgraduate studies, a dynamically developing idea of Business Teal Breakfasts in Poland, numerous publications by the business practitioners, e.g., Marek Wzorek [37], Andrzej Jeznach [38,39], Ewa Mażul [40]) as well as from the scholars (For instance: [34,41,42,43,44]).

2.3. Recruitment and Selection in Teal Organizations

Taking into account the foundations on which teal organizations are built upon, the processes of recruitment and selection in these organizations looks different to the organizations run in a traditional way. In teal organizations, skills and experience of the employee-to-be is important, however, in fact, they take the second place. Since the first place is taken by the candidate’s values and attitude and their convergence with the root values of the company. The possible skills, knowledge or work experience shortage might be rather easily caught up with, often in a short period of time. The real challenge is the employee who does not match the fundamental company values (e.g., self-management) [1].
While beginning the process of recruitment, teal organizations pay a lot of attention to informing an employee-to-be about the values appreciated and bound within the company, which are deeply rooted in it and create a coherent system upon which trust, as a foundation of the teal organization, is built. Thanks to such an approach, not only is the company able to decide whether the candidate is suitable or not, but also the candidate has an opportunity to make a conscious choice about whether they want to apply for that company, whether they want to be a part of it, whether they are eager to work in a new, different way (e.g., self-management), and finally, whether they share the same values as the company. The process of candidates’ selection itself allows both participants to obtain a better, more objective verification of a mutual match [44].
What is more, the members of the team that the candidate is sought for, are to check whether the employee-to-be matches the organization, its values, organizational culture and set goals. Job interviews are also carried out by the members of the team, who finally decide whether they feel like working with a given job candidate on an everyday basis or not. As a result, employees of the teal organizations are allowed to make decisions within the domains which refer to them, including also the decisions concerning the choice of job candidates that match their teams best [1]. Summing up the process of selection in teal organizations, two key aspects of it need to be emphasised:
  • Selection is the most significant, next to training and development processes, key element of a personal function, which originates from the foundations (et. self-management, wholeness, evolutionary purpose) on which teal organizations are built up [44],
  • These organizations seek candidates whose level of self-consciousness is higher and who, first and foremost, align with the company values, which in turn make up the basic foundations of their actions.
In the upcoming part of the paper, the research results of the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes conducted in one of the leading teal organizations in Poland, Marco Ltd. Company (Edenbridge, UK), will be presented. The research has been carried out with the use of case study methodology, paying special attention to CSR aspects present in these processes and their effects/meaning.

3. Materials and Methods

Conducting research in a chosen field and wanting to meet the objectives of it, researchers might choose from quantitative, qualitative and mixed research strategies. Research strategies are the schemes or models of qualitative, quantitative and mixed research, which give a certain direction to the procedures used in the research project [45]. For years, researchers have worked out many types of research strategies within qualitative, quantitative and mixed research. In the framework of qualitative strategies. J. W. Creswell distinguishes ethnography, grounded theory, case studies, phenomenological research and narrative research [45].
The authors of the article use qualitative research strategies to carry out studies on the aspects of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes taking place in a teal organization. The use of these strategies results from the key element of the qualitative research strategies, i.e., from their potential for deeper insight into the researched reality. As R. K. Yin [46] believes, research into a given phenomenon from the qualitative perspective allows for a deeper study of possible causes of a given phenomenon, by understanding what way and why it occurs. To meet the objectives, which were assumed by the authors of this publication, a case study was used. According to R. K. Yin, a case study is a method preferrable in situations when the main research questions are the types of questions starting with “how” and “why”, the researcher has little influence on behavioural facts and when the research focuses on a contemporary phenomenon (contrary to the phenomena which are only of historical importance). He distinguishes the following types of case study [46]: single holistic case study, multiple holistic case study, single embedded case study, multiple embedded case study.
Within a qualitative research strategy, the authors of the article have applied the model of a single embedded case study. Why a single embedded case study? As it is a suitable solution to situations where the case is a key one, unusual, ordinary, revealing or longitudinal (demanding the research be conducted for a longer period of time) [46]. The choice of the case refers also to the theoretical assumptions, which create a content context of each of the five justifications mentioned above. The choice of Marco Ltd. Company (Edenbridge, UK) as a key case results from the fact that this company is one of the leading companies among teal organizations in the Polish market, which has set up the norms in the processes of recruitment and selection. In addition, Marco is unique in its industry, as evidenced by numerous awards received by the company from many government and local government units in the area of CSR. Beside this, from the very beginning of its business activity, the company has been engaged in CSR. Despite the lack of agreement in the theory when it comes to the relevance of implementation of the elements of CSR into the different areas of company activity, the analysis of this single case might significantly contribute to the extension of knowledge and development of the theory by its confirmation and supplementing. W. Czakon [47] points at three goals of using case studies: a theoretical goal, theory testing goal and application goal. In this context, the research strategy applied by the authors of the article assumes a theory testing goal and partly an application goal, taking into account the opportunity for other organizations in the area of job candidates’ recruitment and selection to use the results of this study. Due to the fact that in the case of this single case study on Marco Ltd. Company (Edenbridge, UK), numerous analysis units were present, e.g., many different stakeholders, an embedded case study is applied here [46].
In the process of collecting data concerning the aspects of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in a teal organization for this particular case study, the following strategies typical of qualitative research were used. Among them are:
  • interviews (direct interviews carried out with the teal organization owner and two specialists);
  • documentary analysis (magazines, internal company documents, the company website);
  • analysis of audio–visual materials (video recordings).
We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews. The interviews were carried out according to specified, semistructured interviews and involved questions which allowed the interviewees to talk about their experience concerning the use of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes (Appendix A). As recommended by R. K. Yin [46], during the preparation process preceding data collecting, a case study protocol (questionnaire) was formulated. This is one of the basic methods to improve the reliability of the study, which ensures further material (hints) for the researcher to analyse. The interviews had a structured form, in which the questions were prepared in advance and the respondents answered them in an earlier-determined order [47]. Nonetheless, according to the rules governing interview conducting, the authors did not interrupt the interviewee’s response. The conversations were saved after they had been ended. The first interview took place in the Marco Ltd. Company (Edenbridge, UK) headquarter in Gliwice. The second and the third interviews were conducted online. During the interviews, the interviewers identified and explored which aspects of CSR were included in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in a teal organization, and also the motives underlying such actions of the company. It needs to be remembered that the stories of the interviewed persons are connected to their personal work experience gained in the company, therefore, in accordance with the main research questions, the aim was to achieve the widest possible understanding of the respondents’ everyday reality [48].
Table 1 shows the Marco Ltd. Company (Edenbridge, UK) representatives which were interviewed during the data collection process.
We performed analysis of audio–visual materials. From all of the audio–visual materials accessible via the internet, including presentations or lectures given by the CEO of the company and the other Marco Ltd. Company (Edenbridge, UK) representatives in the last five years, titles referring to the theme of the conducted research were selected. After listening to all of the recordings, three of them which included information about aspects of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes applied in Marco Ltd. Company (Edenbridge, UK) were chosen to be analysed in detail. The analysis of the audio–visual materials was performed with the use of content analysis methodology (although the methodology of the content analysis is used in the analysis of the written materials, applying it to the analysis of the audio–visual materials has brought good results). Content analysis is a structured and systematised analysis procedure, which includes fragmentation of text into units for analysis, with these units coding their description and interpretation, which is conducted by the researcher in accordance with the researched theme/problem and theoretical frames [50].
The process of data collection for the case study of the aspects of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in a teal organization took place from June 2019 to May 2020.

4. Object and Subject of Research

4.1. Object of the Research—Marco Ltd. in Gliwice

The object of the research was one of the leading teal organizations in Poland—Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) from Gliwice. It was established in 2000 and is situated in the Katowice special economic zone. It is claimed that the company is an example of a scientific experiment on a global scale. Marco is known primarily for what it is, not what it produces. Its founder is a charismatic leader, Marek Śliboda, who is still the Chairman of the Board. The company employs 70 employees (as of the end of 2020). Based on the data obtained from the National Court Register for 2019, the company generated: revenues from the sale of products PLN 24,210,169.87; revenues from the sale of goods PLN 3,170,957.19; profit 6,639,948.30 PLN. Besides the headquarter in Gliwice, it has its branches in Toruń, the Czech Republic and in Bulgaria. It is a company representing a general industry sector, producing insulators, seals, pads, tapes, packaging materials, and also providing services in creating software, graphic designing, their own products servicing and offering consulting and training in optimizing the processes of management. Marco cooperates with the biggest global companies from sectors such as: the automotive sector, power tools sector, electronics sector, robotics, the textiles sector, etc. [51] From its very beginning, the company has been functioning according to the new model of management, i.e., a teal model. This means that from its very beginning the organizational structure has been flat (the Management Board was established as it is defined by the Code of Commercial Law), and the company employees have been taking an active part in the company management process. The values declared by the company are: “The widely understood respect for people. Solving social problems and respecting natural environment”. The principles underlying the organization structure are: high awareness of its employees, respect for other people, innovative thinking and active corporate social responsibility and involvement [51].
It is worth mentioning that from its very beginning the company has been engaged in activity in the CSR area. The initiator of this activity has been the Chairman of the Board Mark Śliboda, who has been investing his private income and time into work for the local community, supporting it financially, and also education in the field of entrepreneurship, management, and also corporate social responsibility. Marco’s activity in the field of CSR might be divided into: external CSR, concerning local community, and internal CSR. The material form of external CSR is represented by the MarcoPomaga Charity Foundation, which was established in 2016. The Foundation is supported by the Marco employees, who work there as volunteers, and also friends and sympathisers of the company. Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK)has also invited its suppliers and customers to cooperation in the field of its social projects. So far, the Foundation has helped 140 families, donating PLN 4.6 million to them (data from 2017). As Marek Śliboda points out “From the very beginning as a company founder, I have believed that we need to share our success with others. That is why, we donate a lot of money, devote our time, share our knowledge and offer a lot of other things to the ones in real need” [52]. Besides all of these actions for local community, the company has also been involved in natural environment protection.

4.2. The Subject of Research—The Recruitment and Selection Processes in Marco Ltd.

In Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK), there is no Human Resources Management Department (HRM), however, there is a Human Relations (HRel) department, which concentrates on relationship building among the company employees. Communication and positive relations among the employees build trust, which is the basic principle underlying the foundations of a teal organization. The Human Relations Department employs 30 people. Four of them are constantly working on duties deriving from legislation, the others link these tasks to other roles played in the organization. This department also coordinates the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes, training and employees’ development. The leaders are responsible for hiring, developing and laying off the employees, while HRel Department has an advisory function and supports these processes [53].
In 2011, the document entitled “Marco Organizational Culture”, which sets up a collection of fourteen principles and values working as a guideline in the field of business, human relations, corporate social responsibility, support and widely understood respect for other human beings, was created [51]. It also makes up the basis of the recruitment process as “the recruitment process concerning all the posts from the engineer positions to the ‘cleaning ladies ones’ has been fully subjected to it” [54].
The company declares in all its official documents that its most important capital is its employees, and the ones who are able to dream and consistently fulfil their dreams. “Marco is made up of people, exceptional ones, full of passion and commitment, who promote the values and ideals of corporate social responsibility on a daily basis. They are the ones who create a unique organizational atmosphere and make the company achieve success” [51]. As a result, Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) pays a lot of attention to the processes of recruitment and selection of the future company employees.
The processes of job candidates’ recruitment and selection have been evolving along with the growth of the company. At the beginning they were not very sophisticated and the people who just wanted to join the team were employed. As Bartosz Połącarz, the member of the Board, mentions: “At the start we had different awareness, and the process of recruitment looked completely different than it looks at present. If somebody wanted to grow and develop with us, we just hired them. After some time, it turned out that some people had a different idea how to develop themselves, different vision than we had” [55]. Nowadays, the processes of recruitment and selection are multistage and more complex. The selection is made up of a few or even a dozen or so stages, depending on the post the candidate applies for. It is worth emphasizing that after each completed recruitment process, conclusions are drawn based on the questionnaires sent to job candidates. This means that the recruitment and selection processes are constantly improved. The procedure of recruitment was formulated on the basis of interviews with the owner of Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) Marek Śliboda, and Marta Legut the specialist of HRel, conducted by the authors of the article, with the interview being conducted via the website [56] and the information placed on the company website [51]. The procedure include the following steps:
  • The starting point is to examine the actual recruiting needs;
  • On the website, the features expected from job candidates who are willing to join Marco team, are placed. In this way, the first autoselection of the candidates is conducted. Among the expected features, the company lists:
    • Proactivity—initiating activities and being out of line, suggesting the ideas which aim at constant improving and streamlining of the company;
    • Self-improvement—continuous self-education (e.g., Theoretical Academies (for years, the company’s owner has been meeting regularly with employees at the Theoretical Academies, which he runs himself. These are cyclical meetings with the entire team, during which the current problems, decisions and steps the company is facing are discussed. On the one hand, these are information meetings, but on the other hand, much attention is paid to people who do not have the right to vote in many companies, e.g., employees of the production department, cleaning department, company canteen or warehouse)), raising one’s awareness, upgrading one’s qualifications and broadening one’s mind;
    • Open mind—being open and having positive approach to innovative ways of thinking and acting;
    • Flexibility while taking actions;
    • Willingness to take responsibility for one’s decision-making process;
    • The ability to analyse problems from different perspectives;
    • Empathy and social sensitivity—help for the needy, sharing success;
    • Humbleness and modesty;
    • Honour and corporate social responsibility—whenever making a decision, keep in mind the companies interest in order to build the company’s value, and as a result the common welfare of all the company employees;
  • Next, the candidate fills in the recruitment (application) form and a CV. In the application form the candidate is asked not only to fill in the post they apply for, their level of foreign languages proficiency, etc., but also to list the values that are of key importance in their life, and they is also asked to present the visions and missions important in their life. “We want them to write something about themselves, straight from their heart, not using the template found in the Internet” [53]—so that the whole person can emerge from the CV, not only their knowledge and skills;
  • The next step is the assessment of the candidates based on the content of their application documents, conducted in accordance with the criteria specified for the particular recruitment process [51];
  • The preliminary selection video chat takes place via Skype and lasts for about 30 min. It is conducted in Polish;
  • Language preselection is performed in a chosen foreign language (English or German) and lasts for about 15 min. During this interview, the candidate’s language fluency is checked—this rule is applied only to the chosen (recruitment) processes in the organization;
  • A visit to the organization (mainly related to the production departments)—the leaders of the departments for which the recruitment processes are carried out present the principles and organizational culture of Marco, talk about the opportunities and challenges related to working in the company, and show the specificity of work in production areas.
The main job interview is made up of the following parts: a multimedia presentation runs by the candidate, performed according to the previously specified hints, questions to the candidate and a case study (tasks testing practical skills). This interview lasts for about 90 min.
If all the described above stages are accomplished successfully by the candidate, then the following actions take place:
  • Inviting of one or two candidates to take paid work trial days—this period allows both parties the mutual process of getting to know each other better, and to observe if the features of a given candidate and the long-term vision and mission of the company are coherent;
  • An individual interview with a representative of the company management board;
  • Lunch with company representatives;
  • Employment decision and feedback;
  • A survey assessing the recruitment process by the candidate.
Figure 2 below presents the stages of recruitment process taking place in Marco Ltd., (Edenbridge, UK) taking into account the time horizon [51].
The processes of recruitment and selection in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) work well when it comes to searching for candidates with defined competencies (knowledge, skills and approach in a specified substantive area), communication skills and values. However, the values represented by the candidate are the most important factor, as the owner of the company Marek Śliboda claims: “We can teach people the necessary competencies. What is more, the competencies we are talking about and we teach are much higher than national average. So, our employees are close to the managers and leaders working in ordinary companies” [52]. It is worth emphasising that candidates’ competencies are very significant to Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK). It is also demanded that they are of a very high level, however, the candidate’s values are of a key importance—they provide a foundation, as the candidate’s knowledge and skill ‘operate’ on its base. Moreover, as Bartosz Połącarz, the member of the Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK). Board, emphasises: “We are able to possess knowledge, but the features of character are not so easy to change if it is possible at all. Of course, we do pay attention to skills and experience, but we do not block the way to the ones who set their first steps at the labour market” [55]. A similar opinion is presented by Agnieszka Stefańska, Human Relations Department leader: “From the very beginning we have assumed that we prefer to find a candidate, who matches our DNA in 80–90% and demands substantial support rather than a candidate who is good at a given domain, but for example, does not feel like engaging in social actions, when the charity actions make up one of our company foundations. Having a choice, we will decide to hire a person who shares our values and has a strong substantial knowledge” [53]. The analysis of the values contains a verification of the values declared by the candidate at the recruitment stage, as well as during the selection process: “that whether he (the job candidate—authors’ note) has said that he cooperates with people, he really does it or he has just said so or he has life examples supporting his words. We also feel in a natural way whether somebody suits us or not. It is easy to spot” [52]. Intuition (based on knowledge and experience) is also used in the processes of recruitment and selection, and it suggests whether the candidate suits the team in a natural way or not.
The actual (final) job interview takes place in the headquarters of the company—the interview is conducted by the leader of the team, who the candidate is looked for by, and the other team members, who prepare the questions and practical tasks the candidate has to do. Sometimes, a so called background check is also conducted in order to check the previous workplaces’ opinion of the candidate [56]. However, no psychological tests are performed by the company. The processes of recruitment and selection last for quite a while in this company—usually about three months. This is due to the wish to diagnose in depth the candidate’s competencies and skills, and to experience the mutual process of getting to know both parties and building up mutual relation. As the Chairman of the company emphasizes: “Marco does not look for job candidates, the company looks for team candidates” [56].

5. Results

The answers to research questions RQ1 and RQ2 (what is the definition of the concept of CSR and its relation to HRM? what is the concept of a teal organization and the characteristics of recruitment and selection in this organization?), the authors found in the literature research. The conclusions of this research are described in detail in the theoretical background (part 2).
On the basis of the collected data concerning this case study, with the use of methods typical of qualitative research strategies, e.g., interviews, documentary analysis and the analysis of audio–visual materials, the article authors identified and explored which aspects of CSR are included in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK). (Table 1). The ISO 26,000 standard was used as a model for the search for CSR aspects for recruitment and selection in Marco. The authors also answered the question of what the motives of undertaking such actions are. Table 2 presents CSR aspects in the recruitment and selection processes in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK).
In Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) the aspects of CSR permeate the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes; they make up their inherent features. They are visible from the very beginning of this process, in the search for candidates who are characterised by the defined values and awareness, significant from the CSR point of view, and in the selection process, during which the candidate’s values and awareness are checked many times and in many different ways, finishing with a decision on employing the candidate that matches Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) perfectly.
On the basis of the material gathered in the course of this research, the authors also answered the question of what motives underlie Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) ideas to include the aspects of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes. The use of the CSR aspects in the processes of job candidates’ recruitment and selection stems mainly from Marco organizational culture, which makes up the set of fourteen principles and values which the company’s functioning and further development are based on. The company is convinced that its long-term goals might be realized only thanks to its steady pillars, among which the following should be listed: widely understood respect for people, continuous process of self-improvement and raising awareness and also exceptional approach to charity and work for the local community [51]. The Chairman’s words confirm such an approach: “Our unique Marco organizational culture is our declaration, showing how we want to work and what way we want to change the world. We are aware of the fact that there is still a long way ahead of us, but we do believe that if we do cooperate, we will manage to achieve, even seemingly the most distant goal” [51]. Including aspects of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes allows the company to acquire candidates that, in cooperation with other Marco employees, will make up this unique organizational culture and will realize the mission and vision of the company.
Hence, the answer to the question of why the company includes aspects of CSR in the recruitment and selection processes should be sought in the mission and vision of the company. Both the mission and vision point to the need for employing specific candidates, so that only those who understand and identify themselves with the values and are ready to realize them [58] are hired. By hiring people who share company values and demonstrate a high level of awareness, the company is able to function in compliance with its management philosophy. Thanks to that, it also collects a team of highly motivated and eager-to-work people. “Employees’ motivation derives from their understanding of the mission and vision of the company and their willingness to build, so in a natural way the employee identifies himself with what the company does and s/he simply wants to do the same. If s/he does it well, we have the effects which we share with them” [58].
Figure 3 [51] shows the mission and vision and values of Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) along with the instructions of how to realize them, so by hiring the appropriate people, employees will be eager to realize the long-term company goals with the use of appropriate methods.
By hiring exceptional people, full of passion and commitment, who promote values and ideals of corporate social responsibility on a daily basis, the company has the chance to create a unique organizational culture. What is more, thanks to ensuring the stability of employment and also ongoing support for its employees and their families, the company has created a specific, creative work environment. As the company Chairman claims: “During the process of recruitment, the people are recruited, who in a natural way identify themselves with the vision and mission, and we precisely define what we will be doing and what way we will be doing it. So, if we recruit the people, who are similar to us when it comes to the features of character., the process of reaching the compromise is very short” [58].

6. Discussion

In the literature research, the authors found the answers to research questions RQ1 and RQ2: What is the definition of the concept of CSR and its relation to HRM? What is the concept of a teal organization and the characteristics of recruitment and selection in this organization?
The answer to the third research question (RQ3): “Which elements/aspects of CSR are included in the job candidates, recruitment and selection processes in teal organizations?”, is based on data and information collected also while conducting the case study. The analysis of the collected research results conducted in the article lets the authors identify numerous aspects of CSR, which were deliberately included in the job candidates’, recruitment and selection processes in a teal organization, which Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) undoubtedly represents. Among these elements are the following:
  • The search for the candidates who possess the following values: inter alia, high level of awareness, high social sensitivity level, the will for helping people in need, people who want to and are able to share things with others. All of these make up the basis that allow for undertaking actions in the area of CSR;
  • Carefully prepared and diligently conducted job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes. Such action is a confirmation of the declaration placed in the company documents and its website, saying that people are the most important capital of Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) (“the ones who can dream and consequently realize their dreams” [51]). These processes are run with full respect for basic human rights and human dignity, which makes up the foundation of all the norms of social responsibility;
  • Realization of the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes carried out in a transparent way, with the use of open (public) recruitment criteria. The basis of these processes is the respect for job candidates and a subjective approach to them, honesty/righteousness, justice, lack of discrimination (“both the employees, as well as job candidates are treated as family members or friends” [56]) and there is no discrimination (the condition for passing the recruitment is meeting the required criteria, regardless of age, sex, nationality or degree of disability);
  • During the selection stage, the job candidates are informed in a transparent way that when becoming Marco employees, according to the binding internal social contract, they will be donating 1.5% of their salary to charity and they will also commit themselves to undertaking 16 h a year of voluntary social work;
  • The making of a conscious decision by both sides concerning future cooperation is the culmination of the recruitment and selection processes. This decision is based on reliable data and information, which is obtained thanks to respect, mutual openness and honesty characteristics of these relationships (the leader of the department to which the process is conducted talks about our organizational culture, principles as well as positive and negative sides of working at Marco);
  • Not employing the job candidates who do not match the company organizational culture, even though they might have suitable substantial competencies required in a given post, and hiring them seemed to be a fully logical step.
All the aspects of CSR concerning the chosen elements of job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes applied in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK), mentioned above, refer mainly to two areas described in ISO 26,000 standard [10], i.e., human rights (each organization should operate with the respect to all human rights and peoples’ dignity, especially civil, political, eco-nomic, social and cultural rights. Human rights constitute the basis of all norms of corporate social responsibility. Good practices realised within the framework of this field should result form, inter alia, the need for counteracting any discrimination, strengthening the protection of employees‘ rights and education) and labour practices (employers, by ensuring the stability of employment and suitable working conditions, may influence work quality and the feeling of safety of their employees, who are the most important stakeholders of every organization. Good practices in this field, going beyond the law duties, include, inter alia, all the issues connected with performing work for the company, both by the inner and external stakeholders, starting from the recruitment policy, employment, remuneration, and finishing with the promotion). These are developed thanks to the area of organizational governance (the category of organizational order refers to the rules and norms connected with company management. This includes organizational culture (building a social culture of responsibility within the company), the actions directed to the employees (engaging them in CSR activities), building the CSR strategy and relations with stakeholders (communication, taking into account their expectations)), which supports the process of the company taking responsibility for its actions and integrates the concept of corporate social responsibility with all the areas of the organization’s functioning. An efficient system of management is the basis of effectiveness and efficacy both in the areas connected with its internal as well as external stakeholders. This is easily seen in the recruitment and selection processes in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK). On the one hand, they are directed to the potential employees, who might become internal stakeholders one day, on the other hand—to the external stakeholders, so to other people or organizations, who want to get to know the processes of staff recruitment in a teal organization.
The fourth research question (RQ4) concerned the motives underlying the idea of including the elements/aspects of CSR in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in a teal organization. To find the answer, the analysis of data collected during the interviews, the documentary analysis and the analysis of audio–visual materials were conducted. The answer to this question cannot be found straightforwardly in the tangible benefits derived by the company. At the root of the inclusion of CSR aspects in the recruitment process lies mainly the willingness to maintain and develop the unique organizational culture, thanks to which Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) might aspire to:
  • be one of the most innovative and influential companies in the world from the point of view of global progress and development;
  • design and provide unique, high-quality products, which positively influence human life and entrepreneurships development;
  • change the worldview of businesspeople toward innovation, professionalism and social corporate responsibility;
  • solve social problems and have a positive influence on the natural environment.
Therefore, all of the activities of Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK), and also the realization of the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes, aim at reaching the overall objective—creating a responsible and timeless business at the base of the welfare of the customers, suppliers, employees and company partners. In order to reach that objective, the company needs suitable people, and that is why, at the stage of job recruitment and selection processes, it already includes the aspects of CSR and communicates openly and clearly what it offers to and what it demands from its employees (“We would like to attract only these people, who will be able to act in this model. Additionally, the ones who will not be to act, we try to ‘deter’”) [58]). “The side effects” of such an action are the increasing company revenue and its development.
Analysing the inclusion of CSR aspects in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK), it is worth pointing at the following issues:
  • Firstly, the processes of recruitment and selection in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) are, as a general rule, long and extended (in order to check the candidate’s match to the organization values, including corporate social responsibility), which results in the fact that it must be begun relatively early;
  • Secondly, such a recruitment and selection process generates higher costs. Hence, it requires a lot of involvement, time devotion and attention of the team members, which in turn results in the necessity to join their everyday duties with the tasks connected with a new employee recruitment and selection processes (sometimes after a few months it turns out that none of the candidates from a given group is chosen [56]). Nonetheless, as Marta Legut summed up: “taking into account the fact that we are usually bound to the chosen people for long years, at the same time limiting the cyclic repeatable recruitment process as it is done in other companies, globally our process generates financial and time savings”;
  • Thirdly, the recruitment and selection processes are individualised, which demands the organization to carry out preparations each time. (‘Effectiveness of the recruitment process depends mainly on the preparation of both sides to it. […] The company really cares about finding a person, who will bind himself/herself to it for a long time, will be motivated and involved. While the candidate cares about the job that will induce his/her personal growth, raise his/her qualifications and will, which is obvious, provide safety and stabilisation”) [53];
  • Fourthly, the company does not use so-called job recruitment agencies, as all the processes of recruitment and selection it runs on its own. This allows, despite all, to make some savings and contributes to the selection of candidates who match the company the best, as they are diagnosed by Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) Employees.
The analysis conducted in the article shows that the use of CSR practices is inscribed in the nature of teal organizations, and also in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) organizational culture, and it permeates all of the areas of its functioning. The organization has a deep awareness of the need for the dutiful activity in the field of external CSR in reference to a local community and also internal CSR in reference to its employees and job candidates. Such an approach finds its confirmation in the words of Marta Legut, one of Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) Employees: “Corporate social responsibility of Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) is not linked to any trends and in not the response to market, competitors’ or co-workers’ expectations. It is an integral element of each area of our activity, beginning from management processes, through production ones, charity activity, and ending up with recruitment processes” [57]. According to the owners’ concept: Marco from the very beginning was to be socially responsible and managed in a nonhierarchical way, respecting the subjectivity and independence of employees, giving them a chance for commitment and decision making. At the beginning of the 21st century, when the company was founded, the concept of the teal organization was unknown in the business world or in the scientific literature. Laloux’s book was published in Poland in 2015. So, the company did not find out that it was operating in a teal fashion until many years later. In the case of Marco, teal and CSR existed from the very beginning. One of the three pillars of teal organizations is the evolutionary goal, which boils down to the fact that the organization is an open system, an inherent part of the environment in which it functions. The organization cares about the environment, for the benefit of which it is even able to sacrifice its current and potential profits. Marco treats his employees, customers, suppliers and potential employees subjectively [59]. So, in the case of Marco, neither is teal the cause of CSR, nor vice versa. The rightfulness of the adopted path is also confirmed by numerous awards won by Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK). (In recent years, Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) has received a number of rewards, including, inter alia,: 2014—The reward “Gliwicki Lew”, 2014—The Social Leader of Gliwice, 2015—Reward of TOP 10 of the Silesia Voivodeship Employers, 2015—The Creator of Workplaces, 2016—The Business Benefactor of the Year in Gliwice, 2016—the Reward of the Mayor of Gliwice for the out-standing involvement in youth education, 2017—The Reward ’The Manager of the Year 2017’, 2017—The Reward “Brand Si-lesian” in the category of Corporate Social Responsibility’, 2017—The Reward “Black Diamond 2017”, 2018—The Reward: Honourable Badge for Merits for Silesia Voivodeship, 2018—The Reward “As a Butterfly 2018”, 2019—Nomination of Marek Śliboda to the Reward “Anoda”, acknowledged by the Warsaw Uprising Museum, 2019—The Economic Reward of the President of the Republic of Poland in the category “Responsible Business”), among them, especially important is the award won in 2019—Economic Award of the President of the Republic of Poland in the category “Responsible Business” [60] (Economic Award of the President of the Republic of Poland is a significant distinction for companies which make a significant contribution to the development of Polish economy, building internationally a positive image of Polish entrepreneurship).

7. Conclusions

In this study, the authors have made an attempt to face one of the most important legitimizing challenges of the theory of organization, i.e., the problem of the low instrumental use of the results of research conducted in the framework of this theory. One of the ways to build legitimacy, according to P. Hensel [61], is to bridge the gap between the theory and practise. This is where the choice of the object and subject of the research, and the choice of the research strategies, both come from. The subject of the research was the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in a teal organization. As the object of the research, the leading Polish teal organization was chosen—Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) from Gliwice. In the framework of qualitative research strategy, the authors of the article have used the model of a single embedded case study.
The conclusions from the research conducted in this article are consistent with the results of the research presented in the literature, which show that the use of CSR in HRM brings many benefits: better matching of employees to the roles performed in the organization, higher company income, and lower employee turnover [16,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,47]. Moreover, researchers indicate that organizations assuming stabilization and long timing in the employees’ contract are going to achieve sustainable performance, assuring socially responsible practices and CSR [62]. Nevertheless, an increasing number of organizations are implementing CSR, which in a way influences the expectations of the Z generation [24,25], for which it is important to respect the natural environment, labour relations, social commitment, relations with consumers, and fair market practices.
Based on the content of the speeches of organizations that present their experiences at regional and national business meetings (called The Teal Breakfasts), it can be concluded that a teal organization functions much better in the current conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic (many teal organizations have operated remotely or mixed since their inception), in particular thanks to the trust that is the foundation of teal organizations. Moreover, thanks to their organizational structures (parallel teams, individual contracting networks, nested teams (holacracy)) and self-management (employees have the authority to make decisions, control and take responsibility within their roles), they were able to react quickly and flexibly to new working conditions (it is worth pointing to the increase in Marco’s revenues in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic). So, teal organizations are doing particularly well in the VUCA world.
Both the concept of a teal organization as well as CSR are criticised for, inter alia, being utopian and too idealistic. Teal organizations are treated as those that assume an overly optimistic vision of a human being, and therefore the widespread use of this concept in management practice seems to be limited [63]. However, it is worth noticing that the foundations of these two approaches are the values, which in these two concepts are similar and are all directed to human beings. Relevant practical organizational aspects can better facilitate the management of current and increasing complexity, as well as the transition to more humanistic-oriented organizations [64]. So, it seems a natural thing to base the processes of human resource management and the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes on the values of the organizations, which are both the teal ones and those related to CSR in practice. It should be pointed out that at the basis of teal organizations (in particular, as indicated by the evolutionary goal/sense of the organization’s existence) lies in the sustainable development of the organization, therefore teal organizations are, in their assumptions, sustainable enterprises. This means, in particular, the balancing of economic, environmental and social goals. Therefore, in order for an organization to implement the idea of sustainable development, it needs sustainable personnel, where the best ways to transform personnel into sustainable personnel is the external recruitment of people with appropriate attitudes and qualifications [65].
It is worth emphasising that CSR is seen in almost all stages of human resource management practised by the Marco company, e.g., in the recruitment and selection processes, socio-occupational adaptation, performance review, trainings, motivating, rewarding and quitting. This makes up an inherent feature of this process. The aspects of CSR in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK). Are realised, e.g., by a friendly atmosphere during the recruitment process, good working climate, participation of the employees in management process, subjective treatment of all the employees, providing the conditions for employees’ training and development, above-average remuneration on the background of the industry branch, numerous perks (e.g., life insurance, legal and accounting support, a Culture–Entertainment–Sport Package, pension fund, medical package, food fund, learning foreign languages while working, birthday gift, additional culinary attractions in the form of sushi, craft ice creams, freshly squeezed juices) accessible to all the employees, safety and stability of employment, respect and positive relations with the ex-employees, who stopped matching the organization values or philosophy at some point or who found these elements unimportant to them anymore, etc.
Besides this, Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) is willing to share their—worked on for years—solutions concerning job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes with other companies. Due to this fact, there are a number of teal organizations in Poland that follow the solutions implemented in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) in this area., e.g., Brewa Company from Kalisz, DeSmart Software House from Gdynia, and others. Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) distributes and promotes their knowledge and experience in this area as it is determined not only to develop the company itself, but also to contribute to the change of the closer and further environment. Distributing their knowledge and experience is part of the concept of CSR, which takes into account both internal and external stakeholders in its aspects.
The conclusions drawn by the authors from the research can be applied by the people who work on the recruitment and selection, leaders and owners not only in teal organizations, but in all the companies, which aspire to achieve high efficiency and effectiveness of the processes of recruitment and selection. One of the most important benefits that the organizations can obtain are tips in the form of good practices applied in the processes of recruitment and selection of employees, which contribute to the improvement of the organization’s functioning in many areas of its activity. In addition, the conclusions contained in the article can be used by the academic world as a starting point for further research in the area of applying CSR aspects to other elements of the personnel function.
The results and conclusions drawn from the conducted research cannot be generalised, which might be pointed out as a limitation of this study. Such a situation takes place as only one teal organization went through the research process, and it was the organization which sets norms and standards of the recruitment and selection processes among teal organizations in Polish market. However, this case (example) might become an important contribution and a representative guide for other teal companies in Poland and in other countries, which want to implement the elements of CSR to the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes, receiving a great deal of other measurable benefits at the same time. What is more, as the authors of qualitative research conducted on the companies willing to introduce a teal model in their cases point out, an in-depth study of the practices used by one of the companies might also be the supplementation of the already existing theory concerning this area [64]. The authors are aware of the fact that analytical conclusions drawn from a few cases are more convincing than the ones drawn from only one case study. Nonetheless, the Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) case, as the leading teal company in the recruitment and selection processes, was chosen as the decisive one, which resulted in choosing only one single case study. There is no other teal organization in Poland that includes CSR aspects in all the areas of its activity, including the process of human resource management, and has such an advanced job candidates’ recruitment and selection. Moreover, the limitations related to the concepts presented in the article also include the low supply of job candidates with a high level of awareness, including those with appropriate values [66].
The authors consider the extension of their research towards incorporating CSR aspects into other elements of the personnel function, i.e., employee training and development, employee motivation, employee evaluation, remuneration and leaving the company. If there was such a possibility, the authors would plan to conduct research among employees of the analysed organization on their perception of the studied area. Moreover, it seems important to examine other teal organizations whose activities involve CSR aspects. The qualitative research conducted for the purposes of this article is a good starting point for conducting quantitative research both with the participation of employees of the analysed organization and in other teal organizations.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, J.I. and A.M.P.; methodology, J.I. and A.M.P.; supervision J.I. and A.M.P.; writing—original draft, J.I. and A.M.P.; writing—review and editing J.I. and A.M.P. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

In the case of this study, ethical review and approval were waived for this study, due to the fact that the respondents were not asked for any sensitive data, only general data about the company and the recruitment and selection processes.

Informed Consent Statement

Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.

Data Availability Statement

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Appendix A

The interview protocols
CEO/ownerWhat was important to you as the person who founded Marco in 2000? What values were the foundations of the company?
At what point in the company’s activity did you include CSR and why?
In what areas of the company’s operations is CSR disclosed?
Why is the company run in accordance with the teal organization concept?
How are the company’s employees involved in the creation of the company’s organizational culture and in the implementation of the company’s vision and mission?
What kind of job candidates is Marco looking for? What employee competencies are most important to the company?
What is your role in the recruitment and selection of candidates for work at Marco?
Specialist 1You have set standards in the area of recruitment and selection of candidates for work for teal organizations in Poland. Why is these processes so important at Marco?
The recruitment and selection processes have evolved in your organization. So what stages do these processes currently consist of?
The knowledge and skills of job candidates are relatively easier to check than their values. So how does Marco measure the values of job candidates in the selection process?
CSR plays a significant role at Marco. So, how is the willingness of job candidates to join CSR activities checked? When and how are job candidates informed that Marco is involved in CSR activities?
Why are CSR aspects included in the recruitment and selection of job candidates for Marco?
Specialist 2How do the members of the recruited team participate in the recruitment and selection process of job candidates for their team? What are the team members’ rights in this process?
How is the interview with the job candidates and who is participating on behalf of Marco?
Who makes the final decision on selecting a candidate?
What are the challenges Marco is facing in the process of recruiting and selecting job candidates?
Does the company use the help of external companies in the process of recruiting employees?


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Figure 1. Research process conducted for the article. Source: own work.
Figure 1. Research process conducted for the article. Source: own work.
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Figure 2. Stages of recruitment process in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK).
Figure 2. Stages of recruitment process in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK).
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Figure 3. Vision, mission, values, methods and people in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK).
Figure 3. Vision, mission, values, methods and people in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK).
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Table 1. Marco representatives who were interviewed.
Table 1. Marco representatives who were interviewed.
The Name of the InterviewerThe Position in the OrganizationSubject of Speech
Marek ŚlibodaCEO/ownerAccording to the interview protocol (Appendix A)
Daniel NiewińskiExecutive Assistant to the PresidentAccording to the interview protocol (Appendix A)
Marta LegutPublic Relations SpecialistAccording to the interview protocol (Appendix A)
Source: Own work documentary analysis. Within this analysis, the selected documents, which were obtained from the researched company, article trade magazines and the company website were reviewed. While collecting the materials, special attention was paid to obtaining confirmation of the presence of CSR aspects in the job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes from different sources [49].
Table 2. Aspects of CSR in the selected elements of job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK).
Table 2. Aspects of CSR in the selected elements of job candidates’ recruitment and selection processes in Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK).
Selected Elements of Recruitment and SelectionAspects of CSR
The actual recruiting needsMarco is looking for employees in response to a diagnosed recruitment need. It is important not to employ a person who could in any way threaten the stability and security of employment of the current employees of the department to which the recruitment is carried out. It is a pillar of an organizational culture based on CSR.
Features sought in the job candidatesThe candidates who are sensitive to the concept of CSR and want to develop it in their workplace, are looked for. This is expressed, for example, by identifying the set of features sought in candidates, such as empathy and social sensitivity (help for the needy, sharing success).
E-recruitment (E-recruitment is the most dynamically developing form of recruitment. It is a form which is characterised by unlimited location, minimum time of access, relatively low unit cost, a great flexibility and online updating of the data collected [57]): recruitment (application) formThe recruitment (application) form contains standard elements such as the name of the post, self-assessments of foreign language fluency and the elements characteristic of CSR and Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK), e.g., candidate’s values, and also their vision and mission.
Among the candidate’s values, vision and mission, the ones that correlate with the company values are looked for, e.g., “Widely understood respect for people. Solving social problems and respect for natural environment”.
E-recruitment: job offerIn job offers, next to the scope of responsibilities and substantial requirements, the following expectations are established: “professional ethics”, which involves loyalty, humbleness, honesty, respect for other people, active involvement in projects, e.g., run for the local community, impeccable manners.
When it comes to requirements connected with the company values, candidates who are skilled at identifying and smoothing conflicts, and also at reaching compromises, are looked for. The condition of positive verification of the recruitment process is fulfilling the criteria mentioned in the job offer, independently of candidate’s age, sex, nationality, racial background, religion, or degree of disability, which means equal treatment of all the employees.
Selection: the assessment of the recruitment form and application document’s content and the choice of a preliminary group of candidatesIn this stage, the company identifies whether the candidates’ values and what is important to them in everyday professional life correspond to the organizational culture of the company, which is based on the CSR concept “Organization development with the simultaneous respect for natural environment and active involvement in promoting ‘green way of thinking”.
Selection: video chat (preliminary) with the selected candidatesDuring the interview, preassessment of the candidate’s values is conducted and values corresponding to company values are looked for. The values corresponding to CSR, which refer both to the local community initiatives and also the initiatives supporting company employees, are also taken into account.
Selection: the actual job interviewDuring the actual job interview, the final verification of whether the values declared by the candidate correlate with the organization values is performed, especially in the CSR field, and it is checked whether they are the authentic values which the candidate follows and practises in his life. The level of job candidate’s awareness is also diagnosed.
At this stage, the candidates are informed that the employees of Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) are obliged to perform 16 h of voluntary work for the local community and donate 1.5% of their salary to social purposes.
The decision in favour of one or two candidatesThe choice of one or two candidates who share the same approach to the CSR area as Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) and identify with the company organizational culture, e.g., “Exceptional approach to charity activity and work for the local community”.
Inviting one or two candidates to take paid work trial daysThe company tests in practice if the candidate matches the company organizational culture and if they are willing to get involved in company actions in the CSR area.
The company also gives the candidate the chance to get to know the organization “from inside” and its organizational culture based on the concept of CSR. It is a form of respect for these people so that their final decision of taking the job was a conscious one and based on real experience.
Individual interview with the representative of the company management boardDuring the interview with the representative of the company management board, whether the candidate is a suitable person to work for the company which is socially responsible, and also their intuition and experience, are finally verified.
The decision on employing the candidate/defining the terms and conditions of employment contractThe company employs only the people who not only meet the substantial requirements defined in a given job offer, but first and foremost, who act according to the work ethics and whose values correspond to Marco Ltd. (Edenbridge, UK) values.
The decision on employing the candidate, thanks to, inter alia, multistage processes of recruitment and selection and the paid work trial days, is based on reliable information, both about the organization and about the candidate, and out of respect for each person who participates in these processes.
All the company employees, in accordance with the binding internal social contract, donate 1.5% of their salary to help realize the goals of the MarcoPomaga Foundation. What is more, they are obliged to engage in, annually, 16 h of voluntary charity work. They are also encouraged to initiate their own actions within CSR.
Source: authors’ own elaboration.
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Pisarska, A.M.; Iwko, J. The Aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Job Candidates’ Recruitment and Selection Processes in a Teal Organization. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13175.

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Pisarska AM, Iwko J. The Aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Job Candidates’ Recruitment and Selection Processes in a Teal Organization. Sustainability. 2021; 13(23):13175.

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Pisarska, Aneta Maria, and Joanna Iwko. 2021. "The Aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Job Candidates’ Recruitment and Selection Processes in a Teal Organization" Sustainability 13, no. 23: 13175.

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