Next Article in Journal
Role of Endophytes and Rhizosphere Microbes in Promoting the Invasion of Exotic Plants in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
An Air Route Network Planning Model of Logistics UAV Terminal Distribution in Urban Low Altitude Airspace
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Managerial and Behavioral Approach in Aligning Stakeholder Goals in Sustainable Last Mile Logistics: A Case Study in the Netherlands
Article

Different Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicle Fleets in Urban Freight Transport

by 1,2,*, 1 and 1,3
1
Sustainable Transport and Logistics Department, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), 2496 RZ The Hague, The Netherlands
2
Research Group Logistics and Alliances, HAN University of Applied Sciences, 6826 CC Arnhem, The Netherlands
3
Breda University of Applied Sciences (BUas), 4817 JS Breda, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eckard Helmers
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13080; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313080
Received: 29 September 2021 / Revised: 15 November 2021 / Accepted: 18 November 2021 / Published: 26 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zero-Emission City Logistics)
The transition from diesel-driven urban freight transport towards more electric urban freight transport turns out to be challenging in practice. A major concern for transport operators is how to find a reliable charging strategy for a larger electric vehicle fleet that provides flexibility based on different daily mission profiles within that fleet, while also minimizing costs. This contribution assesses the trade-off between a large battery pack and opportunity charging with regard to costs and operational constraints. Based on a case study with 39 electric freight vehicles that have been used by a parcel delivery company and a courier company in daily operations for over a year, various scenarios have been analyzed by means of a TCO analysis. Although a large battery allows for more flexibility in planning, opportunity charging can provide a feasible alternative, especially in the case of varying mission profiles. Additional personnel costs during opportunity charging can be avoided as much as possible by a well-integrated charging strategy, which can be realized by a reservation system that minimizes the risk of occupied charging stations and a dense network of charging stations. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban freight transport; city logistics; electrification; zero emission zone; sustainability; charging strategy; charging infrastructure urban freight transport; city logistics; electrification; zero emission zone; sustainability; charging strategy; charging infrastructure
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kin, B.; Hopman, M.; Quak, H. Different Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicle Fleets in Urban Freight Transport. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13080. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313080

AMA Style

Kin B, Hopman M, Quak H. Different Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicle Fleets in Urban Freight Transport. Sustainability. 2021; 13(23):13080. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313080

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kin, Bram, Meike Hopman, and Hans Quak. 2021. "Different Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicle Fleets in Urban Freight Transport" Sustainability 13, no. 23: 13080. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313080

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop