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Article

Analysis of Time Use Surveys Using CO-STATIS: A Multiway Data Analysis of Gender Inequalities in Time Use in Colombia

1
Faculty of Basic Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar (UTB), Cartagena 131001, Colombia
2
Statistics Department, University of Salamanca (USAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain
3
Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Stefano Boca and Ambra Gentile
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13073; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313073
Received: 31 October 2021 / Revised: 18 November 2021 / Accepted: 22 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender Issues in Sport and Leisure Activities)
The aim of this article was to study 23 time use activities measured in the two latest Colombian National Time Use Surveys, taken in 2013 (with 119,899 participants over the age of 10) and in 2017 (with a sample of 122,620 participants), to identify similarities and differences between the years of the survey by gender, age group, and socioeconomic level. The study’s results were obtained using the CO-STATIS multiway multivariate data analysis technique, which is comprised of two X-STATIS analyses and co-inertia analysis. The results confirm the existence of gender issues related to time use in Colombia, which are associated with gender stereotypes that link women to unpaid work and home care, especially in low socioeconomic levels, where women face limitations in terms of the time available to earn their own income. Additionally, differences were found by socioeconomic level, where Colombians of high socioeconomic status in all age groups are able to devote more time to leisure and recreational activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: time use; gender inequality; multivariate analysis; CO-STATIS; X-STATIS; co-inertia time use; gender inequality; multivariate analysis; CO-STATIS; X-STATIS; co-inertia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Medina-Hernández, E.J.; Fernández-Gómez, M.J.; Barrera-Mellado, I. Analysis of Time Use Surveys Using CO-STATIS: A Multiway Data Analysis of Gender Inequalities in Time Use in Colombia. Sustainability 2021, 13, 13073. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313073

AMA Style

Medina-Hernández EJ, Fernández-Gómez MJ, Barrera-Mellado I. Analysis of Time Use Surveys Using CO-STATIS: A Multiway Data Analysis of Gender Inequalities in Time Use in Colombia. Sustainability. 2021; 13(23):13073. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313073

Chicago/Turabian Style

Medina-Hernández, Edith J., María J. Fernández-Gómez, and Inmaculada Barrera-Mellado. 2021. "Analysis of Time Use Surveys Using CO-STATIS: A Multiway Data Analysis of Gender Inequalities in Time Use in Colombia" Sustainability 13, no. 23: 13073. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313073

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