2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.2. Data Collection and Documentation
2.2.1. Schoolyards Geographical Mapping
2.2.2. Schoolyard Affordances Registration
2.2.3. Pupil’s Group Interviews
2.2.4. National Policy Regulations and Recommendations Documents
3.1. Characteristics of Six Nordic–Baltic Schoolyards: Differences and Similarities
3.2. Potential Affordances in the Schoolyards for Developing Motor Skills: Differences and Similarities
3.3. Pupils’ Opinions and Preferences for Schoolyard Affordances and PA
3.3.1. Pupils’ Perceptions of Their Schoolyard
3.3.2. What Pupils Like to Do in Their Schoolyard
3.3.3. How Pupils Use Their Schoolyard in Different Seasons
3.3.4. Pupils’ Wishes for Their Schoolyard
3.3.5. How Pupils Perceive Time for PA
3.4. Regulations/Recommendations for Schoolyard Design in Six Nordic–Baltic Countries
3.4.1. Recommendations for Schoolyard Area
3.4.2. Recommendations for Schoolyard Equipment and Facilities
3.4.3. Regulations for Safety
3.4.4. Curricular Policy for Using Outdoor Arenas for Play and Learning
4.1. Characteristics of the Selected Schoolyards
4.2. Potential Affordances of Schoolyards for PA and Movement Skills
4.3. Pupils’ Preferences for Physical Activities in the Schoolyards
4.4. National Regulations/Recommendations for Schoolyard Design and PA in Schoolyards in the Six Nordic–Baltic Countries
4.5. Strength and Limitations
4.6. Future Research Perspectives and Implications for Practice
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Robinson, L.E.; Stodden, D.F.; Barnett, L.M.; Lopes, V.P.; Logan, S.W.; Rodrigues, L.P.; D’Hondt, E. Motor Competence and its Effect on Positive Developmental Trajectories of Health. Sports Med. 2015, 45, 1273–1284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WHO. Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Web Annex: Evidence Profiles. World Health Organization. 2020. Available online: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/336657 (accessed on 6 June 2021).
- Hallal, P.C.; Andersen, L.B.; Bull, F.C.; Guthold, R.; Haskell, W.; Ekelund, U. Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet 2012, 380, 247–257. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Guinhouya, B.C.; Samouda, H.; de Beaufort, C. Level of physical activity among children and adolescents in Europe: A review of physical activity assessed objectively by accelerometry. Public Health 2013, 127, 301–311. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- OECD. Future of Education 2030. Making Physical Education Dynamic and Inclusive for 2030. International Curriculum Analysis. 2019. Available online: https://www.oecd.org/education/2030/E2030%20Position%20Paper%20(05.04.2018).pdf (accessed on 6 June 2021).
- Jaakkola, T.; Hillman, C.; Kalaja, S.; Liukkonen, J. The associations among fundamental movement skills, self–reported physical activity, and academic performance during junior high school in Finland. J. Sports Sci. 2015, 33, 1719–1729. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Cameron, C.E.; Cottone, E.A.; Murrah, W.M.; Grissmer, D.W. How Are Motor Skills Linked to Children’s School Performance and Academic Achievement? Child. Dev. Perspect. 2016, 10, 71–139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Macdonald, K.; Milne, N.; Orr, R.; Pope, R. Relationships Between Motor Proficiency and Academic Performance in Mathematics and Reading in School–Aged Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ghasemian, M.; Dulabi, S. The Association between Fine and Gross Motor Skills with Cognitive Control and Academic Performance in Adolescent Students. Int. J. Sch. Health 2020, 7, 3–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barnett, L.M.; Stodden, D.; Cohen, K.E.; Smith, J.J.; Lubans, D.R.; Lenoir, M.; Iivonen, S.; Miller, A.D.; Laukkanen, A.; Dudley, D.; et al. Fundamental Movement Skills: An Important Focus. J. Phys. Educ. 2016, 35, 219–225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barnett, L.M.; van Beurden, E.; Morgan, P.J.; Brooks, L.O.; Beard, J.R. Childhood Motor Skill Proficiency as a Predictor of Adolescent Physical Activity. J. Adolesc. Health 2009, 44, 252–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haug, E.; Torsheim, T.; Sallis, J.F.; Samdal, O. The characteristics of the outdoor school environment associated with physical activity. Health Educ. Res. 2010, 25, 248–256. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Haug, E.; Torsheim, T.; Samdal, O. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school–aged children study. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2008, 5, 47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ward, K. What’s in a dream? Natural elements, risk and loose parts in children’s dream playspace drawings. Australas. J. Early Child. 2018, 43, 34–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thorèn, K.H.; Nordbø, E.C.A.; Nordh, H.; Ottesen, I.O. Uteområder i Barnehager og Skoler. Hvordan Sikre Kvalitet i Utformingen. 2019. Available online: http://www.skoleanlegg.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/uploads/Artikler_vedlegg/Uteareal/nmbu–skolerogbarnehager–spreads–web.pdf (accessed on 5 September 2021). (In Norvegian).
- Andersen, H.B.; Christiansen, L.B.; Pawlowski, C.S.; Schipperijn, J. What we build makes a difference—Mapping activating schoolyard features after renewal using GIS, GPS and accelerometers. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2019, 191, 103617. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anthamatten, P.; Brink, L.; Lampe, S.; Greenwood, E.; Kingston, B.; Nigg, C. An assessment of schoolyard renovation strategies to encourage children’s physical activity. Int. J. Behav. Phys. Act. 2011, 8, 27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anthamatten, P.; Brink, L.; Kingston, B.; Kutchman, E.; Lampe, S.; Nigg, C. An Assessment of schoolyard features and behaviour patterns in children’s utilization and physical activity. J. Phys. Act. Health 2014, 11, 564–573. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hamer, M.; Aggio, D.; Knock, G.; Kipps, C.; Shankar, A.; Smith, L. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces. BMC Public Health 2017, 1, 552. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dudley, D.A. A Conceptual model of observed physical literacy. J. Phys. Educ. 2015, 72, 236–260. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pagels, P.; Raustorp, A.; De Leon, A.P.; Mårtensson, F.; Kylin, M.; Boldemann, C. A repeated measurement study investigating the impact of school outdoor environment upon physical activity across ages and seasons in Swedish second, fifth and eighth graders. BMC Public Health 2014, 14, 803. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bell, A.C.; Dyment, J.E. Grounds for Action: Promoting Physical Activity Through School Ground Greening in Canada. Evergreen. 2006. Available online: https://www.evergreen.ca/downloads/pdfs/Grounds–For–Action.pdf (accessed on 20 June 2021).
- Fjørtoft, I.; Kristoffersen, B.; Sageie, J. Children in schoolyards: Tracking movement patterns and physical activity in schoolyards using global positioning system and heart rate monitoring. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2009, 93, 210–217. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bates, C.R.; Bohnert, A.M.; Gerstein, D.E. Green schoolyards in low–income urban neighbourhoods: Natural spaces for positive youth development outcomes. Front. Psychol. 2018, 9, 805. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dyment, J.; Bell, A.; Luca, A. The relationship between school ground design and intensity of physical activity. Child. Geogr. 2009, 7, 261–276. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chawla, L.; Keena, K.; Pevec, I.; Stanley, E. Green schoolyards as havens from stress and resources for resilience in childhood and adolescence. Health Place 2014, 28, 1–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morton, K.L.; Atkin, A.J.; Corder, K.; Suhrcke, M.; van Sluijs, E.M. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: A mixed–studies systematic review. Obes. Rev. 2016, 17, 142–158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.; de Vries, S.I. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children´s physical activity level: A systematic review. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2014, 11, 59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gibson, J.J. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception; Hillsdale, N.J., Ed.; Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ, USA, 1986; Original work published 1979. [Google Scholar]
- Kyttä, M. Children in Outdoor Contexts: Affordances and Independent Mobility in the Assessment of Environmental Child Friendliness. Ph.D. Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland, 2004. Available online: http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2003/isbn9512268736/isbn9512268736.pdf (accessed on 26 June 2021).
- Fjørtoft, I. Landscape as playscape: The effects of natural environments on children’s play and motor development. Child. Youth Environ. 2004, 14, 21–44. [Google Scholar]
- Kanters, M.A.; Bocarro, J.N.; Filardo, M.; Edwards, M.B.; McKenzie, T.L.; Floyd, M.F. Shared use of school facilities with community organizations and afterschool physical activity program participation: A cost–benefit assessment. Int. J. Sch. Health 2014, 84, 302–309. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Van Kann, D.H.H.; De Vries, S.I.; Schipperijn, J.; De Vries, N.K.; Jansen, M.W.J.; Kremers, S.P.J. Schoolyard characteristics, physical activity, and sedentary behavior: Combining GPS and accelerometery. J. Sch. Health 2016, 86, 913–921. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Thomas, J.R.; Nelson, J.K.; Silverman, S.J. Research Methods in Physical Activity, 7th ed.; Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL, USA, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Kristiansand Municipality and University of Agder. Aktiv Ute. Kartlegging av Skolegårder. (“Active Outdoors”. Mapping Schoolyards, Design and Instructions); University of Agder: Kristiansand, Norway, 2006. (In Norwegian) [Google Scholar]
- Templeton, J.F. The Focus Group: A Strategic Guide to Organizing, Conducting and Analyzing the Focus Group Interview; McGraw–Hill: New York, NY, USA, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Boverket. The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, 2015. Gör Plats för Barn och Unga! En Vägledning för Planering, Utformning och Förvaltning av Skolans och Förskolans Utemiljö. Upplaga 1 Boverket Internt SOU 2015: 8. Available online: https://www.boverket.se/globalassets/publikationer/dokument/2015/gor-plats-for-barn-och-unga.pdf (accessed on 5 September 2021). (In Swedish).
- Rakennustieto. Spaces of Day Care and Comprehensive Schools: Planning Outdoor Facilities (RT 103084). 2019. Available online: https://www.rakennustietokauppa.fi/sivu/tuote/rt-103084-paivakodin-ja-perusopetuksen-tilat-ulkotilojen-suunnittelu/2742562 (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Finnish).
- Republic of Latvia Cabinet Regulation No. 610 Adopted 27 December 2002. Hygiene Requirements for Educational Institutions Implementing the General Basic Education, General Secondary Education, Vocational Basic Education, Industrial Education, or Vocational Secondary Education Programmes. Available online: https://likumi.lv/ta/en/en/id/69952-hygiene-requirements-for-educational-institutions-implementing-the-general-basic-education-general-secondary-education-vocational-basic-education-industrial-education-or-vocational-secondary-education-programmes (accessed on 5 September 2021). (In Latvian).
- Lithuanian Minister of Health. An Order for General Health Requirements: School Conducting General Education Programs. General Health Requirements HN 21:2017. Dėl Lietuvos Higienos Normos HN 21:2017 “Mokykla, Vykdanti Bendrojo Ugdymo Programas. Bendrieji Sveikatos Saugos Reikalavimai” Patvirtinimo (savadai.lt). 2017. Available online: https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/TAIS.404809 (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Lithuanian).
- Reykjavik Real Estate Agency and Department of Education and Youth. School Grounds: Status Analysis and Strategy. 2003. Available online: http://22.214.171.124/sites/default/files/ymis_skjol/skjol_utgefid_efni/skolalodir_stodugreining.pdf (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Icelandic).
- European Union’s General Product Safety Directive. 2009. Available online: https://www.cen.eu/news/brochures/brochures/CEN-CLC_Child-Safety_2014.pdf (accessed on 6 April 2021).
- Regulations on Safety for Playground Equip (Ment. 1996. FOR–1996–07–19–703. Ministry of Justice and Emergency Services, Norwegian Playground Regulations). Available online: https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/1996–07–19–703.(umhverfisraduneyti,regulations942/2002 (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Norvegian).
- National Core Curriculum for Basic Education, Finnish National Agency for Education. Rules and Regulations, 2014, 96. Available online: https://www.oph.fi/en/statistics-and-publications/publications/new-national-core-curriculum-basic-education-focus-school (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Finnish).
- Sports—VISC. Pamatizglītības Mācību Priekšmeta Programmas Paraugs. Available online: https://www.visc.gov.lv/sites/visc/files/sports_pamatizgl_1903091.pdf (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Latvian)
- General Programme for Physical Education, Grades 1–4, Primary Education. 2016. Pradinio Ugdymo Bendroji Programa 1–4 Klasės, Pradinis Ugdymas. Available online: https://www.smm.lt/uploads/documents/Svietimas_pradinis_ugdymas/1_pradinio%20ugdymo%20bendroji%20programa.pdf (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Lithuanian).
- Ministry of Education Science and Culture. The Icelandic National Curriculum Guide for Compulsory Schools: Ministry of Education (Iceland). 2013. Available online: https://www.stjornarradid.is/lisalib/getfile.aspx?itemid=f7d55056-989c-11e7-941c-005056bc4d74 (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Icelandic).
- Norwegian Core Curriculum, Kunnskapsløftet. 2020. Available online: https://www.udir.no/lk20/overordnet-del/?lang=eng (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Norviegian).
- Finnish Basic Education Act. 1998. § 29, Act 628/1998. Available online: https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/1998/19980628#Pidm45237816216464 (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Finnish).
- Ministry of Education, Iceland. Regulation on the Construction and Equipment of Compulsory School Housing and School Grounds Nr/519-1996. 2009. Available online: https://www.reglugerd.is/reglugerdir/eftir-raduneytum/menntamalaraduneyti/nr/3273 (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Icelandic).
- Hilmarsson, G.; Larusson, K. Design of Compulsory Schoolyard in Regard to Movement. 2007. Available online: https://skemman.is/bitstream/1946/739/1/Heildarskjal.pdf (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Icelandic).
- Dowdell, K.; Gray, T.; Malone, K. Nature and its Influence on Children’s Outdoor Play. Aust. J. Environ. Educ. 2011, 15, 224–235. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sando, O.J. The outdoor environment and children’s health: A multilevel approach. Int. J. Play 2019, 8, 39–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Niemisto, D.; Finni, T.; Haapala, E.A.; Cantell, M.; Korhonen, E.; Sääkslahti, A. Environmental Correlates of Motor Competence in Children—The Skilled Kids Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1989. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kiewra, C.; Veselack, L. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers’ Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms. Int. J. Early Child. Environ. Educ. 2016, 4, 70–95. [Google Scholar]
- Engemann, K.; Bøcker, C.; Pedersen, L.A.; Tsirogiannis, C.; Bo Mortensen, P.; Svenning, J.C. Residential green space in childhood is associated with lower risk of psychiatric disorders from adolescence into adulthood. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2019, 116, 5188–5193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Castonguay, G.; Jutras, S. Children’s appreciation of outdoor places in a poor neighbourhood. J. Environ. Psychol. 2009, 29, 101–109. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hyndman, B.P. A qualitative investigation of Australian youth perceptions to enhance school physical activity: The Environmental Perceptions Investigation of Children’s Physical Activity (EPIC–PA) study. J. Phys. Act. Health 2016, 13, 543–550. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Loukaitou–Sideris, A. Children’s Common Grounds: A Study of Intergroup Relations Among Children in Public Settings. J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 2003, 69, 130–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lucas, A.J.; Dyment, J.E. Where do children choose to play on the school ground? The influence of green design. Education 3–13 2010, 38, 177–189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Samborski, S. Biodiverse or Barren School Grounds: Their Effects on Children. Child. Youth Environ. 2010, 20, 67–115. Available online: http://www.colorado.edu/journals/cye (accessed on 6 April 2021).
- Sancar, F.H.; Severcan, Y.C. Children’s places: Rural–urban comparisons using participatory photography in the Bodrum peninsula. J. Urban Des. 2010, 15, 293–324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hardman, K. Physical education in schools: A global perspective. Kinesiology 2008, 40, 5–28. [Google Scholar]
- Barros, R.M.; Silver, E.J.; Stein, R.E. School recess and group classroom behaviour. Pediatrics 2009, 123, 431–436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Children & Nature Network. Building a National Movement for Green Schoolyards in Every Community. 2016. Available online: https://www.childrenandnature.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/CNN_GSY_Report2016_Final.pdf (accessed on 6 April 2021).
- Danks, S.G. The Green Schoolyard Movement: Gaining Momentum around the World. 2014. Available online: https://www.childrenandnature.org/2014/02/ (accessed on 6 April 2021).
- Tremblay, M.; Gray, C.; Babcock, S.; Barnes, J.; Bradstreet, C.; Carr, D.; Chabot, G.; Choquette, L.; Chorney, D.; Collyer, C.; et al. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6475–6505. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Drenowats, C. Association of motor competence and physical activity in children—Does the environment matter? J. Phys. Educ. Sport 2021, 21, 514–519. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tortella, P.; Fumagalli, G. Urban outdoor movement education: A playground to promote physical activity. The case of the “Primo Sport 0246”playground. J. Phys. Educ. Sport 2021, 21, 469–476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bleeker, M.; Beyler, N. The Impact of Playworks on Boy’s and Girls’ Physical Activity During Recess. J. Sch. Health 2015, 85, 171–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Janssen, M.; Twisk, J.W.; Toussaint, H.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A. Effectiveness of the PLAYgrounds programme on PA levels during recess in 6–year–old to 12–year–old children. Br. J. Sports Med. 2013, 49, 259–264. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jansson, M.; Abdulah, M.; Eriksson, A. Secondary School Students perspectives and use of three school grounds of varying size, content, and design. Urban For. Urban Green 2018, 30, 115–123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pawlowski, C.K.; Andersen, H.B.; Troelsen, J.; Schipperijn, J. Children’s Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go–Along Interview. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0148786. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fjørtoft, I. The Natural Environment as a Playground for Children: The Impact of Outdoor Play Activities in Pre–Primary School Children. Early Child. Educ. J. 2001, 29, 111–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fjørtoft, I.; Sageie, J. The Natural Environment as a Playground for Children: Landscape Description and Analysis of a Natural Landscape. Landsc Urban Plan. 2000, 48, 83–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Elliot, S. Children in the natural world. In Young Children and the Environment; Davis, J.M., Ed.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2010; pp. 43–75. [Google Scholar]
- Andersen, H.B.; Klinker, C.D.; Toftager, M.; Pawlowski, C.S.; Schipperijn, J. Objectively measured differences in physical activity in five types of schoolyard area. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2015, 134, 83–92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pawlowski, C.S.; Bondo Andersen, H.; Jan Arvidsen, J.; Schipperijn, J. Changing recess geographies: Children’s perceptions of a schoolyard renovation project promoting physical activity. Child. Geogr. 2019, 17, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fjørtoft, I.; Halorsen Thoren, K.; Löfman, O. Schoolyard physical activity in 14–year–old adolescents assessed by mobile GPS and heart rate monitoring analysed by GIS. Scand. J. Public Health 2010, 38, 28–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Stadler–Altmann, U. Indoors and Outdoors: Schoolyards as learning and playing opportunities. J. Phys. Educ. Sport 2021, 21, 553–559. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parrish, A.-M.; Okely, A.D.; Stanley, R.M.; Ridgers, N.D. The Effect of School Recess Interventions on Physical Activity. Sports Med. 2013, 43, 287–299. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fjørtoft, I.; Kjonniksen, L.; Støa, E.M. Barn—Unge og Fysisk Aktivitet. 2018. USN Skriftserie, 12. Available online: https://openarchive.usn.no/usn-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2578038/2018_12_Fjortoft.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed on 6 April 2021). (In Norwegian).
- Almers, E.; Askerlund, P.; Samuelsson, T.; Waite, S. Children’s preferences for schoolyard features and understanding of ecosystem service innovations—A study in five Swedish preschools. J. Adventure Educ. Outdoor Learn. 2020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Flax, L.; Altes, R.K.; Kupers, R.; Mons, B. Greening schoolyards—An urban resilience perspective. Cities 2020, 106, 102890. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mooses, K.; Vihalemm, T.; Uibu, M.; Mägi, K.; Korp, L.; Kalma, M.; Mäestu, E.; Kull, M. Developing a comprehensive school-based physical activity program with flexible design—From pilot to national program. BMC Public Health. 2021, 21, 92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Active Healthy Kids. Global Alliance. Golbal Matrix 3.0. 2018. Available online: https://www.activehealthykids.org/global-matrix/3-0/ (accessed on 6 April 2021).
- Deaner, R.O.; Balish, S.M.; Lombardo, M.P. Sex Differences in Sports Interest and Motivation: An Evolutionary Perspective. Evol. Behav. Sci. 2016, 10, 73–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rutkauskaitė, R.; Gruodytė-Račienė, R.; Čikotienė, I.; Visagurskienė, K. (Eds.) The Recommendations for Schoolyard Design to Increase Movement Affordances for Children; Lithuanian Sports University: Kaunas, Lithuania, 2021; Available online: http://dspace.lsu.lt/handle/123456789/87 (accessed on 5 September 2021).
|Country and Grades||Schoolyard Area, Pupils (n), and Area/Child||Landscape: Topography and Vegetation||Surface||Dominating Main Characteristics|
|(Pupils Age Range)|
|Estonia, Grades 1–9 (7–16 y)||28,257 m2||Flat, open, dominated by sports fields, vegetation: grass and trees as borders|
Asphalt, sand, and gravel
|Asphalt, sand grass||Different sports arenas for football, basketball; a little green area for smaller trees. Possibility to bike|
|n = 968|
|Finland, Grades 1–9, (7–16 y)||33,400 m2||Mostly flat||Asphalt||Ballgame areas|
|n = 950||Fields, rocks||Sand and gravel||Versatile equipment for motor skills and fitness|
|35 m2||vegetation: forest, fields, planted flowers, bushes, trees, grass||Artificial grass||Green area|
|Iceland, Grades 1–10 (7–14 y)||32,455 m2||Mostly flat, smooth area, one hill that is popular in the wintertime.||Grass, asphalt, artificial surface||Green schoolyard|
|n = 455||Planted trees, bushes||Diverse equipment for motor skills and physical fitness.|
|70.5 m2||Ballgame areas|
|Latvia, Grades 1–12 (7–18 y)||38,670 m2||Flat, dominated by sports arena: soccer.||Asphalt||Dominated by a big soccer field|
|n = 980||Trees and bushes as fence and borders||Artificial grass|
|Lithuania, Grades 1–12, (7–18 y)||35,000 m2||Mostly flat, lawns||Asphalt, solid cover||Green schoolyard—it is a part of the school territory with trees and bushes and timbers and some inbuilt sporting equipment|
|n = 1033||Vegetation: grass, bushes||Artificial grass||Ballgame area|
|34 m2||and trees||Sand||Sandpit|
|Norway, Grades 8–10, (13–15 y)||2500 m2||Undulated grass, trees bushes, rocks, forest, open land for all year activities||Asphalt,||Green schoolyard with varied landscape and affordances related to seasons|
|n = 135||Sand and gravel||Ballgame areas, swing, BMX—trial|
|18.5 m2||Artificial grass|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).