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Differences on Habitual Physical Activity Index in Primary Schoolchildren according to Age and Gender
Article

Associations of Classroom Design and Classroom-Based Physical Activity with Behavioral and Emotional Engagement among Primary School Students

1
Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland
2
Department of Teacher Education, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland
3
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francis Ries, Richard Bailey and Claude Scheuer
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 8116; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13148116
Received: 1 June 2021 / Revised: 14 July 2021 / Accepted: 16 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Active School Concept)
Educational reforms worldwide have resulted in schools increasingly incorporating open and flexible classroom designs. Open learning spaces may contribute to a student’s behavioral and emotional school engagement directly and by facilitating classroom-based physical activity (CPA). We investigated the associations between accelerometer-assessed CPA and student ratings of task-focused behavior and attitude towards school as indicators for behavioral and emotional engagement, respectively, with the associations of gender, grade, and classroom design on CPA among 206 3rd and 5th grade students in open learning spaces and conventional classrooms. Structural equation modelling showed open classroom design to be directly associated with better attitude towards school (B = −0.336; CI95% −0.616 to −0.055), but not with task-focused behavior. The relationship between task-focused behavior and attitude towards school was statistically significant (B = 0.188; 95%CI 0.068 to 0.031). CPA was not associated with task-focused behavior and attitude towards school, while classroom design (B = 1.818; 95%CI 1.101 to 2.536), gender (B = 1.732; 95%CI 20 1.065 to 2.398), and grade (B = 1.560; 95%CI 0.893 to 2.227) were statistically significantly associated with CPA. Open learning spaces seem to be associated with better emotional engagement, which is associated with behavioral engagement. Longitudinal studies investigating associations of open learning spaces and CPA on students’ behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement concurrently are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: classroom; open learning space; physical activity; school engagement; behavioral engagement; emotional engagement classroom; open learning space; physical activity; school engagement; behavioral engagement; emotional engagement
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartikainen, J.; Poikkeus, A.-M.; Haapala, E.A.; Sääkslahti, A.; Finni, T. Associations of Classroom Design and Classroom-Based Physical Activity with Behavioral and Emotional Engagement among Primary School Students. Sustainability 2021, 13, 8116. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13148116

AMA Style

Hartikainen J, Poikkeus A-M, Haapala EA, Sääkslahti A, Finni T. Associations of Classroom Design and Classroom-Based Physical Activity with Behavioral and Emotional Engagement among Primary School Students. Sustainability. 2021; 13(14):8116. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13148116

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hartikainen, Jani, Anna-Maija Poikkeus, Eero A. Haapala, Arja Sääkslahti, and Taija Finni. 2021. "Associations of Classroom Design and Classroom-Based Physical Activity with Behavioral and Emotional Engagement among Primary School Students" Sustainability 13, no. 14: 8116. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13148116

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